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Axial Skeleton

bones and parts of the axial skeleton

What are the 5 functions of the bones? 1. Support 2. Protection 3. Movement 4. Storage 5. Blood cell fortmation
What are the two parts of the skeletal system? 1. Axial 2. Appendicular
What are the two classifications of bones? 1. Spongy 2. Compact
What are the 4 types of bones? 1. Long 2. Short 3. Flat 4. Irregular
What are the ends of the long bone called? Epiphysis
What is the "shaft" of the long bone called? Diaphysis
What color is the marrow in an adult bone? Yellow
What color is the marrow in a child's bone? Red
What is the site of longitudinal growth in a child called? Epiphyseal plate
In an adult, what is located where the epiphyseal plate used to be? Epiphyseal line
What is the name for mature bone cells? Osteocytes
What is the name for immature bone cells? Osteoblasts
What occurs in the bones and muscle when there is disuse and severe lack of exercise? Atrophy
How many bones are there total in the adult skeleton? 206
Give an example of a long bone: humerus, femur, radius, ulna, tibia, fibula
Give an example of a flat bone: bones of the skull, ribs, sternum
Give an example of a short bone: sesamoid, carpals, tarsals
Give an example of an irregular bone: vertebrae, hip bones
What is the outside covering of the diaphysis called? Periosteum
What covers the external surface of the epiphysis? Articular cartilage
What does articular cartilage do? Reduce friction
What cavity houses marrow inside the shaft of the long bone? Medullary
What lines the inner surface of the shaft (diaphysis)? Endosteum
What are the two main types of bone markings? 1. Projection/Processes 2. Depression/cavities
Name two types of projection or process. tuberosity, crest, trochanter, line, tubercle, epicondyle, spine, process, head, facet, condyle, ramus
Name two types of depressions or cavities. groove, fissure, foramen, notch, meatus, sinus, fossa
What is a fracture? break in a bone
What are two types of bone fractures? 1. Closed/simple 2. Open/Compound
What are the two ways to treat fractures? 1. Reduction 2. Immobilization
What type of reduction occurs when surgery is involved? open
What type of reduction occurs when a doctor does it manually? closed
What is the first thing that happens in the healing of a bone fracture? Hematoma forms
What are the three parts of the axial skeleton? 1. Skull 2. Vertebral Column 3. Bony Thorax or Thoracic Cage
What two sets of bones form the skull? 1. Cranium 2. Facial
How are the bones of the skull joined? Sutures
How many cranial bones are there? 8
List 3 cranial bones. frontal, occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid, parietal, temporal
How many facial bones are there? 14
List 3 facial bones. maxillae, palatine, lacrimal, zygomatic, nasal, vomer, inferior nasal conchae, mandible
What is also known as the forehead bone? frontal
What is also known as the cheekbbone? zygomatic
What is the lower jaw called? Mandible
What is the bone located on the back of your skull called? occipital
What bone is the only bone that does not articulate with another bone and serves as a movable base for the tongue? Hyoid
How many bones are in the vertebrae? 26
How many cervical? 7
How many thoracic? 12
How many lumbar? 5
What are the names for the top two cervical vertebrae? 1. Atlas 2. Axis
What is the atlas and the axis responsible for? Movement of the head
What are the three parts of the thoracic cage or bony thorax? 1. sternum 2. ribs 3. thoracic vertebrae
What are the three types of ribs? 1. true ribs 2. false ribs 3. floating ribs
Which ribs directly articulate with the sternum? True ribs
Which ribs indirectly articulate with the sternum? False and floating
What is the weight bearing portion of the vertebrae called? body
What is the opening called where the spinal nerves pass through? vertebral foramen
Created by: hrosa



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