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Anatomy Mid-Term

Anatomy Weeks 1-5

What is Anatomy? Study of body structure True Meaning "to cut apart"
Body is erect, or standing, posture with the arms at the sides and palms facing forward, head and and feet are in the same position Anatomical Position
Describe Bi-lateral Symmetry Right and Left Side of the body mirror each other - balanced porportions
Term used for same side Ipsilateral
Describe contralateral Opposite
Supine Body is lyng face upward
Prone Body is lying face down
Superior towards the head
Inferior towards the feet
Medial toward the middle of the body
Lateral toward the side of the body away from the midline
Proximal toward or nearest the trunk of the body or nearest the point the point of orgin of one of its parts
Distal away from or the farthestfrom the trunk
What are the Planes of the body? Body plane, sagittal plane, mid-sagital plane , coronal plane, transverse plane
Muscles are what to the skin? Deep
The knee is what to the feet? Proximal
Four Major elements of the human body Carbon 18.5%, Oxygen 65%,hydrogen 9.5%, nitrogen 3.3%
What is the cloud Model? Subatomis particles surrounding a central nucleas or "its electon cloud"
What is number of protons? Atomic number
The largest naturally occuring atom (atomic mass) Uranium
Explain the probability distribution? any one electron cannot be specifically located at a specific at a particlular time
Atoms with fewer than eight electrons in the outer energy level will attempt to lose, gain, or share electrons with other atoms to achieve stability Oclet Rule
Atomic weight The average mass number for a particular element based on the the typical proportion of different isotopes found in nature
Instable and undergoing nuclear break down Radio Isotope
Interactions between two or more atoms occure as a result of activity between electrons in their outermost energy mass Chemical Reaction
Reaction that hold atoms together Chemical Bond
formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another. Occurs as a result of attraction between atoms that have become electronically charged by the loss or gain of electrons Iionic Bond
Chemical bond formed bythe sharingof one or more pairs of electrons between the outer energy levels of two sides Covalent Bond
Explain a double bond covalent bond that binds atoms together by sharingtwo pairs of electrons
Compounds composed of molecules that contain carbon covalent bonds or carbon hydrogen covalent bond or both kinds of bonds Organic compound
Inorganic compound few have carbon none have carbon covalent or carbon hydrogen bonds
What is an example of an inorganic compound Water
What elementis an exception to the inorganic rule? CO2
I am an ion with a negative charge anion
I am an ion with postive charge cation
a surface that is sensitive to stimuli, long extensions (detects changes in internal or external environment, transmits nerve impluses from one part of the body to another) Nerve cells
Elongated, thread like, contain tiny fibers that slide together forcefully (contact to alow movement) Muscle cells
Contain hemoglobin (transports oxygen in the blood stream) Red Blood cells
Contain sacs that release a sercretion to the outside of the cell Gland cells
May have outer membrane capable of engulfing other cells, may manufactor antibodies, may be able to destroy other cells Immune Cells
Name the main cell structures Plasma membrane, cytoplasm (including organelles, nucleus)
Sacs or canals made up of thin plasma membrane that contain protien, lipids, and other molecules Membraneous organelles
Phospholipid bilayer reinforced with cholestrol and embedded with protiens and other organic molecules Plasma Membrane
Ribosomes attach to the rough part of this and synthesize polypeptides that enter it by folding and finishing them, moving them to the smooth part of this. What membraneous organell is this? Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
I sysnthesis carbohydrates, combine it with protiens, package it as gobules of gylcoprotien Golgi Apparatus
Viscles are? Tiny membraneous bags
Lysosomes Digestive enzymes break down defective all part (autophagy) and ingest prticles
Peroxisomes Tiny membraneous bogs containing enzymes, detoxify harmful substances in the cell
Tiny membraneous capsuls surrounding an inner highly folded membrane, embedded with enzymes Mitochondria
Houses genetic code, which in turn dictates protien synthesis, there by playing an essential role in other cell activities, cell transport, metabolism, and growth Nucleus
A cells protien factory Ribosomes
Destroys misfolded or abnormal protiens manufactures by the cell. Quality control Proteasomes
Supporting framework of the cell and it organelle Cytoskeleton
Assist in organizing and forming microtubules Centrosomes
Tiny finger like extensions that increase a cells absorbotive surface area Microvilli
Move substances over the cells surface or detect changes outside the cell Cilia
Propel sperm cell Flagella
I form Ribosome substances Nucleolus
I am a steriod lipid and I mix with phosphoid molecules to form a blend of lipids to stay fluid enough to function at body temperatures Cholesterol
Integral membrane protiens IMP's- Intergated into the structure of the membrane embedded with in the phospholipid bilayer
Name the membranefunctions of a cell Trasport, identification, signaling, signal transduction, connection
Little organs that thicken cytoplasm and result in a gel-like substance Organelles
What are the two groups of organelles? Membraneous and Non-membraneous
Endoplasm the cytoplasm located toward the center of a cell
Reticulum Small network
Endoplasmic reticulum a small network located deep in the cell
Rough ER The site of protien synthesis for protiens secreted by the cell. Rough ER is dotted with small granules (robosomes)
What are Robosomes? distinct organelles for making protien compoed of RNA often refered to as rRNA (cells protien factory)
What is smooth ER? Helps cells destrot toxins, regulate the breakdown of glycogen into glucose for energy for energy, makes membranes for use through out the cell
Membraneous Organelle consisting of tiny sacs or cistrernae, processes molecules with in the it membrane, processes and packages protien molecules for export in the cell Golgi Apparatus
Lysosomes Help the cell breakdown protiens "cell digestive bags"
Proteasome protien destroying organelle, responsible for breaking down abnormal and misfolded protiens released from the ER
Peroxisome Pinch off from SER detoxify harmfull substances that may enter the cell and serve as detoxification centers with in the body
The cells power plant Mitochondia
I am the cells largest structure, I contain DNA, I work closely with the Endoplasmic Reticulum through the nuclear envelope Nucleus
I consist of acid butit is not DNA or RNA, functio to synthesize ribosomal RNA and combine it with protiens to form the subunits that will eventually attach to the robosomes Nucleolus
What is the Cytoskeleton? The cells internal suporting framework- made up of ridged rod like pieces that not onloy provide support but allow movement
Gap Junctions are membrane channels of adjacent membranes that connect to each other in two ways. What are the ways? 1) form gaps or tunnels that join the cytoplasm of the two cells 2) fuse the two plasma membranes into a single structure adhering to each other
Cells are joined by callers of tightly fused membrane. Boneded like sodas in a six pack. What bond is this? Tight Junction
What are the four principal groups of tissue Epithelial, conective, muscle, nervous
What are the primary germ layers? Endogerm, mesoderm, and ectoderm
Describe epitheal tissue. one or more layers of densly arranged cells with very little extracellular matrix. May form either sheet or glands, covers and protest the body surface, lines body cavities, transports substances(absorption, secretion, excretion, and glandular activity
Describe connective tissue. Sparsley arranged cells surrounded by a large porportion of extracellular matrix often containing structural fibers and mineral crystals. Supports body structures, transports substances throughout the body. Bones, joints, cartilage, tendons, ligments
Describe Muscle tissue Long Fiberlike cells, sometimes branched, capable of pulling loads; extra cellular fibers sometimes hold muscle fiber together. Produces body movement, produces movements of organs such as the stomach, heart, produces heat
Nervous tissue Mixture of many cell types including several types of neurons (conducting cells) and neurological (support cells). Communication between body parts, intergation and regulation of body functions, tissue of bain and spinal cord, nerves of the body, sensory
Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Gel in many tissues
What are ECM components Collagen fibers, Reticular fibers, Collagen IV, Elastin, glycoprotiens, Proteoglycans
2 majorcatagories of Membranes Epitheal, connective tissue
3 types of epitheal membranes Cutaneous, Serous, mucous
What is parietal membrane? Lines the wall of the cavity
What is Viseral membrane? Covers the surface of (organs with n the cavity)
Surrounds lungs and lives the thoracic cavity Pleura
covers the abdominal viscerca and lines the abdominal cavity Peritoneum
lines surfaces opening directly to the exterior (mucosa) Mucous membrane
Surrounds heart Pericardium
Connective tissue membrane does not contain epithelial components. Synovial membranes- lines the spaces between bones and joints - secret- synovial fluid also line the cushionlike sac called bursae
Where is hematopoietic tissue is found where? Heart
Mucous membranes lubricate and protect passageways
Name a function of epitheal tissue Protection, sensory, secretion, absorption, excretion
Do connective tissue membranes contain epitheleal components No
This tissue is often divided into two subdivisions, what are they? Membraneous-often called surfaceepithelium Glandular epithelium - solid coils or hollow follicles that form the secretory units of endocrine and exocrine glands
Epithelial contains no blood what is that called? avascular
Desmosomes and tight junctions hold cells together that are adjacent epitheal cells by their plasma Membranes. True or false True
What are the classifications of epitheleal cells based on shape? Squamous - Scaly, flat plate like Cubiodal - cube shaped and have more cytoplasm Columnar - more heighth than width Pseudostratified columnar - one layer of oddly shaped cells, do not fully extend to the surface membrane
What are the classifications based on layers of the cells in epitheleal? Simple Epithelium - single layered Stratified epithelium- layered one on another Transitional epithelium - uniqu arrangement of differing cell ishapes in a stratifed or layered sheet
Where would you find simple squamous cells? lining of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, surface of pleura, pericardium and peritoneum
Where would you find simple columnar epithelium? mucus membrane that lines the stomach, intestines, uterus, uteran tubes, and parts of respitory track
Where would you find simple cubodial epithelium? resting on basement mebrane, glands and ducts, glands and tubules of organs (kidneys)
These are large secretory visicles that give an appearance of a goblet Goblet cells
Microvilli much like cilia but shorter and more numerous
Where would you find pseudostratified clumnar epithelium? line the air passages of the respitory system and the certain segments of the male reproductive system ike the urethra
Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium is located where? Skin covering the bodies surface
Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium can be found where? lining of the mouth, vagina, and esphogus
A protective layer with two or more rowns of low cuboidal cells that are aranged randomly over basement membrane, sweat glands ducts, pharynx and over parts of the epiglottis Stratified cubodial epithelium
Cells that appear surface level are? Umberal cells
What is exocrine? discharge secretion into ducts (salivory glands)
What is endocrine? ductless glands, discharge directly into blood or IF, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands
Name the fuctional classification of the exocrine gland Apocrine holocrine merocrine
How do apicrine glands function? collect their seccretory product near the apical face of the cell and then release them into the duct by pintching a vesicle off the distal end (mamory glands and sweat glands)
Holocrine glands collect secertory product and the burst to discrete it (self distruct, true or false True
Mecrorine glands do not discharge through the cell plasa and membrane. True or false False
I am the most widely diverse tissue and I can be found virtually around every organ, what am I? Connective tissue
Name the functions of connective tissue connects, supports, transports, defends
Name the classifications of connective Fibrous, bone, cartilage, and blood
What are the sub catagories of Fibrous connective tissue? Loose Fibrous, adipose,reticular, dense
What are the sub catagories dense fibrous connective tissue? irregular and regular
What are the sub catagories of dense fibrous regular connective tissue? collagenous and elastic
What are the sub catagories of bone tissue? compact and cancellous (spongy)
What are the sub catagories of cartiledge? Hyaline, fibrocartiledge, and elastic
Describe Areolar? Loose fibrous connective tissue, stretchable and ordinary because it is the most widely distributed of all tissues, acts like a glue but an elastic glue that permits movement
Like small space Areolar
Contains predomently fat cells, (adipocytes) fewer fiberblast, macrophages and mast cells Adipose
White fat the energy storage depot for the body, also acts as insulating mateial
Brown Fat Less abundant and is used for heat because of the numerous mitochandrian. Vital to newborns because they cannot shiver to conduct heat
Beige Fat less abundant where white fat is turning to brown
Osseous tissue Bone tissue, most distinctive form of connective tissuein that it consists of fibers, cells, and extracellular material or matrix
inorganic salts and organ matrix bone matrix can be subdivided into 2 chemical components
Inorganic salts are what? hardness resulting from rock like crystals of calcium and phosphate
Organic matrix can be described as what Composite of collagenous fibers and a mixture of protien and polysacharides called ground substance
I make up 80% of bone mass in the adult human body Compact Bone
Concentric lamellae Cylinder shaped layersnof calcified matrix in osteon, also present outside the osteon
Layers of calcified matrix between osteons, reminants of old osteons Interstitial Osteon
I am the outer circumfrance of a compact bone periostrum
I run along the inner circumfrance of a compact bone endoseum
Describe Lucunae small spaces in the bone matrix that contain tissue fluid, bone cells lie improsened in between the hard layers
Ultra small canals radiate in all directions fromthe lacunae and connect them to one another and to the central canal Canaliculi
Osteonal canal or haversian cananl extends lengthwise through the center of each osteon Central canal
I connect central canals to each other, also known as Volkmann canals Transvers canals
I constitue 20% of the total bone massin the body Cancellous or Spongy bone
What are the three bone cells osteoblast (bone forming), Osteoclasts (bone reabsorbing cells), osteocytes ( Mature bone cells)
How many bones is the skeltal system made of? 206
What are the division of the skeletal system Axial and Appendicular
How many bones make up the axial skeleton? 80
How many bones are in the appendicular skeleton 126
How many bones are in the skull? 28
Where is the region of a long bone that contains the medullary cavity? Inside the diaphysis, contains bone marrow
Created by: constance.scheu



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