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Chapter 3

Cyclic movement leaving home for defined amount of time and returning home.
Activity spaces places in which people move in the rounds of everyday activity.
Snowbirds retired or semiretired people who live in cold states and Canada for most of the year and move to warm states like Florida, California, and Arizona for the winter.
Pastoralism a type pf cyclic movement when herders move livestock through the year continually find fresh water and green pastures.
Transhumance specialized form of pastoralism practiced in mountain areas when ranchers move livestock vertically to graze on highlands during summer months and lowlands during winter months.
Relocation diffusion spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth by the act of people moving and taking the idea or innovation with them
International migration Purposeful movement of people from one country to another with a degree of permanence or intent to stay.
Emigrants people who migrate out a country.
Immigrants people who migrate into a country.
Net migration difference between immigration and emigration.
Refugees migrants who flee their country because of political persecution and seek asylum in another country.
Remittances money that immigrants send back to families and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many lower income (peripheral) countries.
Reverse remittances money flowing from home countries to migrants in their destination countries.
Guest workers migrants who are invited into a country to work temporarily, are granted work visa status, and are expected to return to their home country at the end of the visa.
Islands of development cities in developing regions where foreign investment is concentrated and to which rural migrants are drawn.
Internal migration purposeful movement of people within a country from one location to another with a degree of permanence or intent to stay.
Diaspora dispersal of a people from their homeland to a new place, either voluntarily or by force.
Assimilation when a minority group loses distinct cultural traits, such as dress, food, or speech, and adopts the customs of the dominant culture. Can happen voluntarily or by force.
Human trafficking a form of forced migration where people are involuntary sold and traded for manual labor or as workers in the commercial sex trade.
Gulags forced labor or prison labor camps. Most often associated with authoritarian countries.
Distance decay decreasing likelihood of diffusion with greater distance form the hearth.
Gravity model urban geography model that mathematically predicts the degree of interaction and probability of migration (and other flows) between two places.
Push factors the conditions and perceptions that help a migrant decide to leave a place.
Pull factors what attracts a migrant to a certain destination, the factors that help the migrant decide where to go.
Intervening opportunity presence of an opportunity near a migrant's current location that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of migrating to a site farther away.
Unauthorized or undocumented immigrants migrants who do not have legal permission to stay in the country where they live. unauthorized migrants can be those who enter a country legally, as authorized migrants with a visa, and then stay when the visa expires, or enter without a visa at all.
Coyotes those who smuggle people across the border for a sizable fee
Chain migration permanent movement from one place to another that follows kinship links. Encouraging people you know to follow your steps of immigrating to the country you are in.
Repatriation a refugee or group of refugees returning to their home country, usually with the assistance of government or a non governmental organization.
Asylum seekers migrant who claims the right to protection as a refugee in a country other than their home country.
Internally displaced persons (IDP’s) people who have been displaced within their home country and do not cross international boundaries.
Bracero program Laws and agreements passed in the U.S. and Mexico in 1942 to encourage Mexicans to migrate to the United States to work in agriculture.
Laws and agreements passed in the U.S. and Mexico in 1942 to encourage Mexicans to migrate to the United States to work in agriculture.
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