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Assignment 1

Chapter7

TermDefinition
anaphase the stage of meiotic or mitotic cell division in which the chromosomes move away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle.
apoptosis the death of cells which occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development.
cyclin any of a number of proteins associated with the cycle of cell division which are thought to initiate certain processes of mitosis
cytokinesis the cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule composed of two polynucleotide chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses.
diploid containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
exon a segment of a DNA or RNA molecule containing information coding for a protein or peptide sequence.
gamete a mature haploid male or female germ cell which is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
haploid Human sex cells (egg and sperm cells) contain a single set of chromosomes and are known as
interphase the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis
intron a segment of a DNA or RNA molecule which does not code for proteins and interrupts the sequence of genes
meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores
metaphase the second stage of cell division, between prophase and anaphase, during which the chromosomes become attached to the spindle fibers.
mitosis a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth
polyribosome another term for polysome. a cluster of ribosomes held together by a strand of messenger RNA that each ribosome is translating
prophase the first stage of cell division, before metaphase, during which the chromosomes become visible as paired chromatids and the nuclear envelope disappears. The first prophase of meiosis includes the reduction division
proteome the entire complement of proteins that is or can be expressed by a cell, tissue, or organism.
spliceosome large and complex molecular machine found primarily within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. It is assembled from small nuclear RNAs and approximately 80 proteins.
telomere a compound structure at the end of a chromosome.
telophase the final phase of cell division, between anaphase and interphase, in which the chromatids or chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed.
transcription first of several steps of DNA based gene expression in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase. Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language
translation the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum synthesize proteins after the process transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus
Created by: Diana.smith