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Kathleen Maravillas

ANATOMY WEEKS 1-5

QUESTIONSANSWERS
What region is inferior to the oral region? MENTAL REGION
Which branch of anatomy studies the structural changes that occur as one ages? a. developmental anatomy b. surface anatomy c. regional anatomy d. pathological anatomy a. DEVELOPMENTAL ANATOMY
___ refers to an inner region of an organ, whereas, _____ refers to an outer region or layer of an organ. MEDULLARY, CORTICAL
The body as a whole can be subdivided into two major divisions. They are____ AXIAL AND APPENDICULAR
Basic unit of all living things. CELL
If your reference point is “farthest from the trunk of the body” versus “ nearest to the trunk of the body”, where does the knee lie in relation to the ankle? PROXIMAL
How many numbers of regions are there in abdominal region? NINE
A sagittal section divides the body into ___ portions? RIGHT AND LEFT
The reproductive system includes all of the following except the: a. testes b. ovaries c. ureter d. penis URETER
Several kinds of tissues working together are termed a(n): ORGAN
When many similar cells specialize to perform a certain function, it is referred to as a(n): TISSUE - a group of similar cells that performs a specific tasks.
Five cavities containing an orderly arrangement of the internal organs are: CRANIAL CAVITY SPINAL CAVITY THORACIC, OR CHEST CAVITY ABDOMINAL CAVITY PELVIC CAVITY (ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY)
Space inside the skull (cranium) containing the brain CRANIAL CAVITY
Space inside the spinal column containing the spinal cord SPINAL CAVITY
Space containing the heart, aorta, lungs, esophagus, trachea, and brochi THORACIC OR CHEST CAVITY
Space containing the stomach, intestines, kidneys, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and ureters ABDOMINAL CAVITY
Space containing the urinary bladder, certain reproductive organs, parts of the large intestine, and the rectum PELVIC CAVITY
Both the pelvic and abdominal cavities ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY
Two major cavities of the human body are VENTRAL AND DORSAL
The abdominal quadrants are located with what structure as their midpoint? UMBILICUS
The mediastinum contains all of the following except the: a. trachea b. venae cavae c. right lung d. esophagus C. RIGHT LUNG
The surgeon removing a gallbladder should know to find it in the ____ region: a. right lumbar b. right hypochodriac c. hypogastric d. umbilical B. RIGHT HYPOCHONDRIAC
The plane that divides the body into upper and lower parts is the ____ plane. TRANSVERSE
From smallest to largest, the levels of organization of the body are: CHEMICAL, ORGANELLE, CELLULAR, TISSUE, ORGAN, ORGAN SYSTEM, AND ORGANISM
Mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum are examples of: ORGANELLES
Atoms combined to form larger chemical aggregates MOLECULES
Blood production is a function of which system? SKELETAL
The lungs are located in the THORACIC OR CHEST CAVITY
Popliteal refers to the AREA BEHIND THE KNEE
An organization of many similar cells that are specialized to perform a certain function is called: TISSUE
It is responsible for coordinating and controlling body the is found in the nerves, spinal cord, and brain. NERVOUS TISSUE
Adipose (fat), osseous (bone) tissues, and blood are types of this tissue that connects, support, penetrates, and encases various body structure. CONNECTIVE TISSUE
The major covering of the external surface of the body; forms membranes that line body cavities and organs and is the major tissue in glands. EPITHELIAL TISSUE
Composed of cells that have a special ability to contract, usually producing movement MUSCLE TISSUE
What is the anatomical direction term that means “nearer the surface?” SUPERFICIAL
Inferior to the umbilical region. HYPOGASTRIC REGION
Superior to the umbilical region. EPIGASTRIC REGION
Right and left of the umbilical region. LUMBAR REGION
Right and left of epigastric region. HYPOCHONDRIAC REGION
Right and left of hypogastric region. ILIAC REGION
Inferior of the epigastric region. UMBILICAL REGION.
The outer layer of the skin EPIDERMIS
The horny, or cornified, layer composed of protein. It is contained in the hair, skin, and nails. KERATIN
Color, or pigmentation of the skin. MELANIN
The inner layer of the skin (also called the TRUE SKIN). DERMIS
The tiny, coiled, tubular structures that emerge through pores on the skin’s surface and secrete sweat. SWEAT (SUDORIFEROUS) GLANDS
It secrete sebum (oil) into the hair follicles where the hair shafts pass through the dermis. SEBACEOUS GLANDS
Chemical bonds formed by the sharing of electrons are called: COVALENT
A molecular that is polar CAN FORM A HYDROGEN BOND AND HAS AN UNEQUAL CHANGE
Acids, bases, and salts belong to a large group of compounds called: ELECTROLYTES
The type of chemical reaction most likely to require energy is a ____reaction. SYNTHESIS
An element that contains the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons is called a(n): ISOTOPE
Which type of chemical reaction results in the breakdown of a complex substance into two or more simpler substances? DECOMPOSITION REACTION
What decomposition reaction requires the addition of a water molecule to break a bond? HYDROLYSIS
The most abundant element essential to life is CARBON
As the concentration of hydrogen ions increases, the pH goes ____, and the solution becomes more _____. DOWN, ACIDIC
Which of the following is not a subatomic particle? a. Proton b. Electron c. Radon d. Neutron RADON
The elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up which percentage of the human body? 96%
It can form as the result of chemical reaction between acids and bases, are electrolytes, and will form crystals if the water is removed. SALTS
A substance that cannot be broken down or decomposed into two or more different substances is called a(n) ELEMENT
An atom can be described as chemically inert if its outermost electron shell contains how many electrons? EIGHT (8)
It is called CATIONS if they have a positive charge? ELECTROLYTES
Hydrogen bonds result from unequal charge distribution on a molecule. Such molecules are said to be POLAR
A force holding two atoms together is a(n) CHEMICAL BOND
This number indicates the number of protons in the nucleus. ATOMIC NUMBER
Which subatomic particles carry a charge? PROTONS AND ELECTRONS
For sodium to transform from a neutral atom to a positive ion, it must: LOSE AN ELECTRON
The reaction between hydrogen and oxygen needed to form water is an example of a: SYNTHESIS REACTION
What term is used to describe all of the chemical reactions that occur in body cells? METABOLISM
Releases hydrogen ions ACIDS
Which of the following elements is lest likely to combine with another element? a. Hydrogen b. Helium c. Oxygen d. Carbon b. HELIUM
Approximately, what percentage of the body weight of an adult female is water? a. 40% b. 50% c. 60% d. 70% b. 50%
A solution that contains a greater concentration of hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions is a(n) _____ solution. ALKALINE (BASIC)
The most abundant and important compound(s) in the body is(are): WATER - H20
The formation of sucrose involves the removal of a molecule of water. This is called: DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS.
The approximate pH of gastric fluid is: a. 10 b. 8 c. 4 d. 2 2
This organelle is numerous in liver and kidney cells. PEROXISOME
The plasma is composed of the following: PHOSPHOLIPIDS CHOLESTEROL GLYCOPROTEINS
This organelle is characterized by folded membranes called cristae. MITOCHONDRIA
This organelle is primarily a sac of powerful digestive enzymes called acid hydrolases. LYSOSOMES
A major function of the cell membrane is to CONTROL WHAT ENTERS AND LEAVES THE CELL.
Which cell fiber serves as part of our “cellular muscles?” a. Centrosome b. Microfilament c. Microtubule d. Intermediate Filament MICROFILAMENT
The barrier function of the plasma membrane is accomplished by the: a. receptor proteins b. glycoproteins c. rafts in the cell membrane d. phospholipid bilayer PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER
The cell extension that contains microfilaments is called: a. microvilli b. flagella c. cilia d. All cell extensions contain microfilaments MICROVILLI
DNA is a major constituent of which cell organelle? a. Lysosome b. Ribosome c. Chromosome d. Nucleus NUCLEUS
Which are the organelles that allow for the recycling of amino acids in the cell? a. Peroxisomes b. Mitochondria c. Ribosomes d. Proteasomes PROTEASOME
A list of the cell fibers from largest to smallest MICROTUBULES, INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS, MICROFILAMENTS
Granules or threads within the nucleus are called: CHROMATIN
The component that distinguishes one nucleotide from another is the NITROGEN BASES
In the DNA molecule, a sequence of three base pairs forms a(n): CODON
Red blood cells are placed in an unknown solution. After 45 minutes, the cells are examined and determined to have decreased in size. The unknown solution is: a. hypertonic b.isotonic c. hypotonic d. osmotic HYPERTONIC
Glycolysis occurs in what part of the cell? a. mitochondria b. plasma membrane c. cytoplasm d. nucleus CYTOPLASM
The strongest and most durable type of cartilage is FIBROCARTILAGE
The connective tissue membranes that ine the spaces between bones and joints are SYNOVIAL
Primary germ layers ENDODERM ECTODERM MESODERM
The fluid environment that fills the spaces between the cells of the body is called: EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX
Stratified squamous (keratinized) epithelial cells are found in the EPIDERMIS
The union of basal and fibroreticular laminae forms the BASEMENT MEMBRANE
Around the sixth month of pregnancy, the developing fetus is almost entirely covered by a fine soft hair coat called: LANUGO
The ____ junction “glues” the epidermis and dermis together and provides mechanical support for the epidermis. a. gap b. dermoepidermal c. desmosome d. integument DERMOEPIDERMAL
Each hair follicle has a small bundle of involuntary muscles attached to it called the: ARRECTOR PILI MUSCLE
All glands in the body can be classified as either EXOCRINE OR ENDOCRINE
Which of the following is the most superficial layer of the epidermis? a. stratum basale b. stratum lucidum c. stratum corneum d. stratum granulosum e. stratum spinosum STRATUM CORNEUM
The conducting unit of the nerve tissue is the NEURON
The structure that lies deep to the dermis and forms a connection between the skin and the underlying structures of the body is the HYPODERMIS
Which of the following contains osteocytes? a. striated muscle b. smooth muscle c. bone d. blood BONE
The two main layers that compose the skin are the dermis and a. superficial fascia b. subcutaneous c. epidermis d. hypdermis EPIDERMIS
The mixed secetions of sebaceous and ceruminous glands form a brown waxy substance called the CERUMEN
Which of the following contains intercalated disks? a. smooth muscle b. striated muscle c. cardiac muscle d. blood CARDIAC MUSCLE
The examples of serous membrane are the following: PLEURA PERITONEUM PERICARDIUM
Besides water, extracellular matrix contains PROTEINS AND PROTEOGLYCANS
Which type of tissue has cube-shaped cells and can be found lining the kidney tubules? a. simple squamous epithelium b. stratified squamous epithelium c. simple cuboidal epithelium d. pseudostratified columnar epithelium SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM
Which lower leg bone is smaller and is located laterally? A. tibia B. fibula C. femur D. patella FIBULA
The main shaft-like portion of a long bone is the DIAPHYSIS
Fibrocartilage can be found in the SYMPHYSIS PUBIS
The bone that articulates with the temporal bone in the only movable joint of the skull is the MANDIBLE
The bone that claims the distinction of being the only bone in the body that articulates with no other bones is the HYOID
The medial part of the anterior chest wall is supported by a dagger-shaped bone called the STERNUM
Bone marrow is a specialized type of soft, diffuse connective tissue called MYELOID TISSUE
The dense, white fibrous membrane that covers bone except at joint surfaces is the PERIOSTEUM
The largest sesamoid bone in the body is the PATELLA
Of the five metacarpal bones that form the framework of the hand, the _____ metacarpal forms the most freely movable joint with the carpal bones. THUMB
Anteriorly, each rib of the first seven pairs attaches to the STERNUM
Which of these pelvic bones is the most anteriorly placed? A. pubis B. ischium C. ilium D. coccygeal PUBIS
Anatomically speaking, which bones compose the wrist? A. carpals B. tarsals C. metacarpals D. metatarsals CARPALS
Which two bones compose the shoulder girdle? CLAVICLE AND SCAPULA
Which bone serves as the keystone in the architecture of the cranium? SPHENOID
The extracellular components of bone matrix are HARD AND CALCIFIED
Which structures are unique to the fetal skull and provide additional space for molding the head shape as the baby passes through the birth canal? A. trabeculae B. fontanels C. sinuses D. sutures FONTANELS
This bone is the longest and heaviest bone in the body. FEMUR
_____ fibers are present in all three types of cartilage, but they are most numerous in fibrocartilage. A. Collagenous B. Microtubules C. Perichondrium D. Elastin COLLAGENOUS
Spongy bone is characterized by: A. open spaces partially filled by an assemblage of needle-like structures. B. a dense and solid appearance. C. a soft and flexible gel-like appearance. D. a dense and compact substance. OPEN SPACES PARTIALLY FILLED BY AN ASSEMBLAGE OF NEEDLE-LIKE STRUCTURES.
Cartilage is classified as _____ tissue. CONNECTIVE
The joint between the pubic portions of each coxal bone is the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS
Which of the following is a facial bone? A. zygomatic bone B. occipital bone C. parietal bone D. all of the above ZYGOMATIC BONE
Two bones join to form the posterior part of the hard palate. PALATINE
The vertebral bones that support the small (lower section) of the back are the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE
What structures normally hold the foot bones firmly in their arched positions? LIGAMENTS AND TENDONS
Which of the following is a bone in the axial skeleton? A. vertebra B. tarsal C. femur D. clavicle VERTEBRA
Created by: kmaravillas
 

 



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