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1: Intro to medicine

1: Introduction to Medicine 1: Bioclinical and Social Sciences

Instrument used to take BP Sphygmomanometer
Apply cuff at brachial artery which is 2-3 cm above pulse above the pulse point at the ____ antecubital fossa
5 Korotkoff phases are tapping starts, auscultatory gap (soft, swishing), tapping clearer, muffled, disappears
6 Limb Pulses “_____ artery” brachial, radial, femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial, dorsalis pedis
3 head and neck pulses “_____ artery” common carotid, temporal, facial
Normal pulse range adult 60-90 bpm
Name for unusual pulse rhythm ; noise of turbulent flow across artery/vein ; flow turbulent across heart sinus arrhythmia ; bruit ; murmur
Normal resp rate. What is stridor? 12-20 bpm. Like wheeze but on inhale
Normal temp 36-37.5
Measuring core/peripheral temp. Peripheral specifically in ear called ____ tympanic
CVPU is consciousness scale: confused, voice, pain, unconscious
Opportunity cost def the value of forgone benefit which could be obtained from a resource in it’s next best alternative use
Marginal analysis def examination of additional benefits of activity compared to additional costs incurred by that same activity.
5 types of economic evaluation “ cost ______” analysis “BECUM” -benefit, effectiveness, consequences (not formal method), utility, minimalisation.
Example of cost utility analysis healthcare QALY= quality-adjusted life year
3 of the types of drug interactions synergy, negates/competes, no effect
Who regulates pharmacology? MHRA= Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency
What do POM, P, GSL stand for? Prescription only medication, pharmacy medication (over counter), general sales list medication (general shops).
Agonist/ antagonist defs AG= activates receptors and elicit response. AN= prevent effect of agonist
Pharmacodynamics vs pharmacokinetics def how DRUG AFFECTS the body vs how BODY AFFECTS drug
How well drug bings to receptor is it’s _______ to it affinity
4 stages of pharmacokinetics. ; Which two types of drug are absorbed differently? absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion. ; lipophilic and hydrophilic.
Prodrugs = metabolites, medication or compound that after administration is metabolised into pharmacologically active drugs.
6 routes of drug administration: “STRIPO” sublingual, topical, rectal, inhaled, parenteral, oral
5 Types of PARENTERAL administration “ITISI”, intravenous, transdermal, intermuscular, subcutaneous, implantation
4 types of joints: Bony, fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
Synovial joints (all major joints in limb) have ___, ____ surfaces covered by _____ ______. smooth articular surfaces ; hyaline cartilage
Joint capsule surrounds the synovial joint. It contains ___ ____ . Inside the joint capsule, ____ ____ secretes ____ ____ to nourish and protect and nourish the joint. supportive ligaments ; synovial membrane ; synovial fluid
Muscle def tissue that’s able to generate movement by contracting/ relaxing.
Biomechanical principles of skeletal muscle (to have action the muscle must ... ) 1. Have 2 ATTACHMENTS ; 2. must attach at EITHER SIDE of the joint. ; 3. Muscle will have ACTION at EVERY JOINT IT CROSSES. ; 4. HOW muscle crosses J determines action it will have.
Flexion vs extension defs flexion= bending or pulling. extension= all back
Abduction vs adduction def ab= limb moved away from body. Ad= limb moved toward body
Medial vs lateral rotation def med= limb twisted inward eg foot. Lat = limb twisted outwards from body
Pronation vs supination. In hands, where does this action occur? pro, hands face down. Sup, hands out like holding soup. ; at the elbow
Inversion vs eversion in= sole turned inward. ev= sole turned outward (dog poo)
Two groups of fibres name and function EFFERENT fibres = exist in the spinal cord to innervate. AFFERENT fibres = arrive back with sensory information in the skin.
Veins in two groups deep or superficial
Neurovascular bundle formed of Nerve, Artery, Vein supplying same structure, travelling together. "NAV"
Litigation the act, process, or practice of settling a dispute in a court of law : the act or process of litigating
Inquests a judicial or official inquiry or examination especially before a jury. A body of people (such as a jury) assembled to hold such an inquiry
Types of law (last one requires ____) criminal law , civil law , public law (judicial review)
Civil cases settled two ways:. Contract law; Tort law.
Ethical problems include: ____ of duty. And _____ N_______ breach ; clinical negligence.
Sources of law: State ; common law/ case law ; regulations and professional guidance.
Patients have right to access healthcare records under the _______ data protection act 1998
Miasma theory of disease > John snow Proposed disease transmitted in cloud of close > father of modern epidemiology, found cholera transm by polluted water
“Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence” written in the … Human rights act 1998
What regulates the processing of personal data about living individuals? General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and Data protection act 2018
Someone who shares someone’s medical information bc they lack capacity Health and Welfare power of attorney
Framing significance analysis of concepts and definitions. How we look at given situation
3 ethical moral theories virtue ethics ; duty ethics (deontology) ; consequentialism
Most developed form of consequentialism is utilitarianism (greatest happiness for greatest number.)
Do Message framing by using ______theory gain/ loss theory
Motivational interviewing will help someone recognise their self-efficacy
Created by: BadhA2013