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Spine Anatomy

MRI 241 Unit 2

How many vertebra are included in the spine? 33 7 Cervical 12 Thoracic 5 Lumbar 5 Sacral 3-5 Coccygeal
What is kyphosis? Abnormal convex curvature of the thoracic spine
What is lordosis? Abnormal concave curvature of the lumbar spine
What is scoliosis? Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
What are the main parts of the vertebra? BODY (anterior); VERTEBRAL ARCH (posterior)
What is the vertebral end plate? compact bone on the superior and inferior surface of the body of the vertebra
What is the vertebral foramen? posterior to the body, the space within the vertebral arch
What are the parts of the vertebral disk? Annulus fibrosus surrounds the nucleus pulposus
What/where is the conus medullaris? The end of the spinal cord where the nerves fan out much like a horse's tail. Usually located at L1.
Name the spinal ligaments. (9) Apical; Alar; Transverse ligament; Ligamentum Nuchae; Supraspinous ligament; interspinous ligaments; ANTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT; POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT; Ligamentum Flava
Describe the APICAL ligament Connects apex (tip) of odontoid process with the base of the clivus;
Describe the ALAR ligaments 2 bands that extend obliquely from sides of dens to lateral margins of occipital condyles; LIMIT the flexion/rotation of head
Describe the TRANSVERSE ligament. p 196, fig 4.43 runs across vertebral foramen of C1; long fibers connect superiorly with base of clivus and inferiorly with body of C2; appears as a cross (CRUCIFORM LIGAMENT); holds dens against anterior arch of C1
What is the LIGAMENTUM NUCHAE. Attachment point for muscles of the posterior neck; run from occipital protuberance to spinous processes of C-spine; Continues on as the SUPRASPINOUS LIGAMENT
Describe the SUPRASPINOUS LIGAMENT. Connects tips of spinous processes from C7 to lower lumbar spine.
What are the INTERSPINOUS ligaments? connections between spinous processes
Describe ANTERIOR LONGITUDINAL ligament. broad band of fibers; C1 anteriorly to Sacrum; connects anterior vertebral bodies and IV disks to maintain stability and prevent hyperextension; Thickest at T-spine (most support)
Describe POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL ligament narrower/weaker; lies w/in vertebral canal along posterior body; attached only at IV disks/margins; epidural fat separates from middle of vertebra (basivertebral veins); C2 to Sacrum; prevents posterior protrusion of nucleus pulposas/hyperflexion
Describe LIGAMENTUM FLAVA Strong fibers made from yellow elastic tissue; present on either side of spinous processes (w/in lamina); preserve normal curvature
Name the spinal membranes. Atlantooccipital membrane; Tectorial membrane
Describe the ATLANTOOCCIPITAL membrane connect the arches of the atlas with the occipital bone; Anterior portion connects anterior arch of C1 with anterior base of occipital bone
Describe the TECTORIAL membrane Broad; runs from clivus to posterior body C2; Covers dens, transverse, apical and alar ligaments; Forms anterior boundary of vertebral canal; continues as POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL ligament
describe the muscles of the back Three groupings; SUPERFICIAL LAYER - SPENIUS muscles; INTERMEDIATE LAYER - ERECTOR SPINAE group; DEEP LAYER - TRANSVERSOSPINAL group
Describe the muscle regions of the back. named according to location; CAPITIS; CERVICIS; THORACIS; LUMBORUM
What muscles are included in the SUPERFICIAL layer? splenius; located lateral and posterior of c-spine and upper T-spine;
What muscles are included in the INTERMEDIATE layer? erector spinae; chief extensor of vertebral column and includes 3 portions- ILIOCOSTALIS (lateral), LONGISSUMUS, and SPINALIS (medial); Arises from common broad tendon from posterior part of iliac crest
What muscles are included in the DEEP layer? transversospinal; several short muscles located in groove between spinous processes and transverse processes; separated into SEMISPINALIS, MULTIFIDUS, and ROTATORES;
Created by: Larobbins



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