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Hole's Anatomy and Physiology 15ed Chapter 3

Four major cell parts cell membrane, cytoplasm, cellular organelles, nucleus
cell membrane outer boundary made of a bilayer of phospholipid molecules with proteins embedded that have specific functions
functions of cell membrane regulate movement of substances in and out of cell provide routes for small molecules and ions to cross otherwise impermeable membrane selecively permeable- o2, co2 and steroids pass easily. impermeable to water soluble molecules- aa, sugar, prot, na
cellular adhesion molecules (CAMS) proteins that assist with transport of molecules in and out of the cell guide cell on the move and helps them adhere to cells when they reach their destination
cytoplasm jelly-like fluid; holds the cellular organelles and occupies the space around them
cytoskeleton framework (microtubules and microfilaments)
cellular organelles have specific functions in the cell
ribosomes tiny spherical structures that contain protein and rna provide structural support and enzymatic activity to link amino acids and form proteins scattered in the cytoplasm and on the endoplasmic reticulum
endoplasmic reticulum particles in the synthesis of protein and lipid molecules (rough and smooth)
rough endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes for protein synthesis
smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes and detoxifies and stores calcium
vesicles membranous sacs that transport substances into and out of cells
gogli apparatus packaging center flattened membranous sacs sorts, packaes and transports proteins
mitochondria kidney shaped contains cristae which control chemical reactions that release energy from nutrient molecules and then store it in atp
lysosome garbage disposal tiny membranous sacs, contain enzymes destroy anything in the cell that we no longer want or need
peroxisomes membranous sac that have enzymes detoxify (alchohol) abundant in liver and kidneys
centrosome two hollow cylinders called centrioles
cilia short hair-like extensions from the cell surface that help move substances through passageways
flagella tail-like projection, only one per cell and helps move tail of sperm
nucleus brain or control center of each cell houses genetic material enclosed in a double-layered nuclear envelope
nucleolus spherical body within the nucleus made of rna and protein synthesis of ribosomes
chromatin made of loosely coiled fibers of dna and chromosomes
DNA carries genes for synthesizing proteins
equlilbrium equal distribution
concentration gradient higher concentration to lower concentration (more towards less)
diffusion spreading ot fo molecules from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration
facilitated diffusion cell membrane carrier proteins help molecules into the cell occurs when a concentration gradient exists
osmosis water moving through the cell membrane
osmotic pressure the ability of osmosis to generate enough pressure to lift a volume of water. water tends to move to areas of greater_____ ____
isotonic solution 0.9% NACL same osmotic pressure as body fluids
hypertonic solution higher osmotic pressure outside the cell than body fluids cell shrinks
hypotonic solution lower osmotic pressure outside the cell than body fluids cell swells and may burst
filtration using pressure to force something through a cell membrane
active transport opposite of diffusion goes from lower concentration to higher like swimming upstream requires energy
endocytosis bring a large substance to the cell via a vesicle formed in the cell membrane
pinocytosis liquid cell drinking
phagocytosis solid cell eating
Created by: FrickinFreckles



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