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Tissues

Hole's Anatomy and Physiology15th Ed. Chapter 5

QuestionAnswer
This type of tissue forms protective coverings and functions in secretion and absorption Epithelial Tissue
This type of tissue supports and binds structures Connective Tissue
This type of tissue produces body movements and has contractive properties Muscle Tissue
This type of tissue conducts impulses that control and coordinate body activities Nervous tissue
Basement membrane Anchors epithelial tissue to connective tissue
simple one single layer of cells
stratified two or more layers of cells
squamous thin, flat cells
cuboidal cube shaped cells
columnar column shaped cells
simple squamous epithelium single layer of thin flat cells fctn: filtration, diffusion, osmosis, covers surface found: lining of air sacs of lungs, walls of capillaries, inside of blood and lymph vessels
simple cuboidal epithelium single layer of cube shaped cells fctn: absorption and secretion found: covering ovaries, lining kidney tubes, ducts of glands
simple columnar epithelium single layer of column shaped cells may be ciliated or have micro-villi on the surface area fctn: goblet cells secrete mucus, absorption, protection found: digestive system, uterus
pseudostratified columnar epithelium look stratified but are not nuclei at different levels fctn: protection, movement, secretion. commonly have cilia that capture dust and microorganisms in the air and help movement of substances, goblet cells secrete mucus found: upper respiratory pasjw
stratified squamous epithelium many layers of thin flat cells deeper layers that divide and push older cells outward fctn: protection- makes up outer layer of skin skin cells age, they become hard and die
stratified cuboidal epithelium two or three layers of cube shaped cells fctn: protection- form the lining of a lumen opening found: larger ducts of glands and some tubes, mammary glands, sweat and salivary glands
stratified columnar epithelium many layers of column shaped cells fctn: protection and secretion found: male urethra, vas deferens, parts of pharynx
transitional epithelium form inner lining of the urinary bladder (uterus, urethra) several layers of cuboidal cells that can expand fctn: stretch in the response to tension, protection
glandular epithelium specialized cells that make and secrete substances into ducts and/or body fluids. one or more of these cells together is a gland
exocrine glands secrete their products into ducts that open onto a surface
merocrine gland release secretions w/o losing cytoplasim
apocrine glands loses a portion of their cell body during secretion mamory glands
holocrine gland releases entire cell with secretion sebaceous glands of the skin
endocrine glands secrete products into tissue fluid or blood
connective tissue most diverse and abundant binds structures-skin to muscle provides support (bone) and protection (bone, fat) serve as framework (bone, reticular cartilage) fill spaces (loose connective, fat) store fat produce blood cells protect from infection etc
fixed cells reside in the tissue for an extended period of time
fibroblast star shaped fixed cell produce fibers by secreting proteins into the matrix
mast cells near blood vessels fixed cell release heparin which prevents blood clots release histamine for Inflammation and allergic reactions
wandering cells appear temporarily (injury or infection)
macrophage wandering cells acting as scavengers phagocytize- eat anything foreign
three types of connective tissue fibers collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, reticular fibers
collagenous fibers thick threads of the protein collagen fleible but only slightly elastic great strength make up ligaments, tendons look white
elastic fibers made of the protein elastin thin fibers stretch appear yellowish
reticular fibers very thin form a delicate support network loose connective tissue filling spaces in
three types of loose connective tissue areolar tissue, adipose tissue, reticular connective tissue
adipose tissue fat cells called adipocytes contain fat droplets within their cytoplasm found beneath the skin, between muscles, kidneys, surface of heart and behind eyes cushions joints, insulates beneath skin, stores energy in fat molecules
areolar tissue has fibroblast cells binds skin to underlying organs, fills spaces between muscles delicate, thin membrane made of collagen and elastic fibers
reticular connective tissue composed of thin collagenous fibers in a three dimensional network, which contains numerous fibroblasts and white blood cells provides framework of certain internal organs (liver and spleen) like scaffolding
dense connective tissue very strong and fibrous bind body parts together (ligaments and tendons) poor blood supply, slow tissue repair many closely packed thick collagenous fibers and a network of elastic fibers and a few fibroblasts
elastic connective tissue consists of yellow elastic fibers in parallel strands or branching networks, with collagenous fibers and fibroblasts between them elastic found between bones in the spinal column and layers within the walls of some hollow internal organs
three types of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage
cartilage rigid connective tissue support, framework and attachments protect underlying tissue chrondrocytes- cartilage cells lack a direct blood supply so very slow healing
hyaline cartilage most common looks like white glass found on the end of bones at joints, soft part of nose, rings of air passageways
elastic cartilage made of elastic fibers flexible framework of outer ear
fibrocartilage very tough shock absorber pads between vertebrae (intervertebral discs)
bone most rigid connective tissue hard due to calcium salts supports body structures protects attachments for muscles
osteocytes form cylinder shaped units called osteons (look like tree trunk)
blood transports materials composed of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
three types of muscle tissue skeletal, smooth, cardiac
skeletal muscle tissue voluntary striations help move limbs and stuff
smooth muscle tissue involuntary intestines, blood vessels nonstriated
cardiac muscle tissue heart involuntary striated pumps blood through the heart and into the blood vessels has intercalated discs
nervous tissue found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves coordinate, regulate, and integrate many body functions include neuroglial cells
four types of epithelial membranes serous, mucous, synovial, cutaneous
serous epithelial membrane lines body cavities that lack openings to the outside secrete serous fluid (watery fluid that lubricates the cavities)
mucous epithelial membrane lines cavities and tubes that are open to the outside (can be internal) goblet cells that secret mucus (thick fluid)
synovial epithelial membrane found in joints secretes synovial fluid for lubrication
cutaneous epithelial membrane skin
Created by: FrickinFreckles
 

 



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