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A&P: Ch2 Vocab

electrolytes minerals that carry electrical charges that help balance the body's pH balance
Inorganic not consisting of or deriving from living matter.
Organic relating to or derived from living matter. Usually contains carbon.
dehydration synthesis A chemical reaction in which two molecules are bonded together with the removal of a water molecule.
hydrolysis A chemical process that splits a molecule by adding water.
dehydrated the state in which a large amount of water has been lost or removed from the body
carbohydrates the starches and sugars present in foods
monosaccharides Single sugar molecules
glycogen The stored form of glucose found in the liver and muscle of animals
disaccharide A double sugar molecule made of two monosaccharides bonded together through dehydration synthesis.
polysaccharides large, complex macromolecule chain formed from hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides
Lipids Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Fats (tryglycerides) make up 95% of the fats in the human body. They consist of glycerol and fatty acids.
Phospholipids a lipid consisting of a glycerol bound to two fatty acids and a phosphate group found in the cell membranes.
Steroids lipids that contain cholesterol.
Cholesterol A type of lipid made by the body from saturated fat needed for hormone production and regulation.
Proteins organic compounds used by the body uses to build and maintain its cells and tissues
Amino Acids building blocks of proteins
Enzymes Proteins that speed up chemical reactions
organic catalysts chemical substances that reduce the activation energy that is needed for a reaction to take place
Nucleic Acids a chain of nucleotides which stores genetic information in biological systems.
protein synthesis the formation of proteins in the mitochondria by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
acid A compound that loses H+ ions and increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. pH = 0 - 6.9
base (alkali) a compound that accepts H+ and removes them from solution. pH = 7.1 - 14
hydroxide ion A negatively charged ion made of oxygen and hydrogen ( OH- )
Neutralization The act or process of making a solution neutral (pH = 7) occurs as a reaction of an acid with a base.
pH scale scale with values from 0 to 14, used to measure the concentration of H+ ions in a solution
buffer compound that prevents sharp, sudden changes in pH
extracellular fluid body fluids located outside of cells
interstitial fluid fluid in the spaces between cells
intracellular fluid the fluid contained within cells
Created by: wrziha



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