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what are the functions of the skeletal system Support, movement, mineral and lipid storage, homeopoises
3 factors affect bone growth stress, hormones, nutrition
2 major types of skeletal bone growth intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification
3 types of muscle smooth, cardiac, skeletal
what is skeletal muscle moves bines directly or indirectly, voluntarily controlled and striated
what are the characteristics of life responsiveness, conductivity, respirations, digestion, absorption, secretion, excretion, circulation, reproduction
what are atoms? tiny little spheres of matter
what are molecules combo of atoms that form large chemical groupings
4 major tissue types epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous
what are the 4 body cavites dorsal, ventral, thoracic, pleural
atomic mass number of protons and neutrons in the atoms nucleus
atomic number number of protons in the nucleus
isotopes atoms that have same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
metabolism all chemical reactions that occur in the body
catabolism chemical reaction that breaks down large food particles into smaller ones releasing energy
anabolism chemical reactions that build larger more complex chemical molecules with energy.
hydrolysis occurs during catabolism, water is added to and energy is released.
dehydrations synthesis key reaction in anabolism and water is removed.
organic compound contains carbon. has covalent bonds
inorganic compounds water, oxygen
4 major groups of organic substances carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acid
3 types of carbohydrates mono, dia, polysaccharides
classes of lipids phospholipids, steroids, prostaglandins
proteins contain what elements carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
DNA pentose sugar (deoxyribose) nitrogenous base and phosphate group
RNA contains RIBOSE sugar
bases in DNA adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
bases in RNA adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
role of PASSIVE transport processes simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, and filtration
simple diffusion molecules dissolves directly through membrane.
facilitated diffusion requires transport proteins can be channels or carriers
osmosis transport water form low to high
ACTIVE transport process comes from the cell itself, energy of metabolism must be used to move particles across membrane *uses energy
endocytosis plasma membrane traps some extracellular material and brings into cell
phagocytosis engulfed by the plasma membrane
functions of the cerebral cortex attention, perception, awareness, thought memory, language, consciousness
hypothalamus functions mind-body link, maintain water balance, endocrine functions, release HGH and sex hormone, regulate appetite, arousal and alert state maintain body temp
name the 12 cranial nerves olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, verstibulocochlear, glossophayngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal
3 functions of a neuron afferent, efferent, interneurons
afferent sensory neurons
efferent motor neurins
interneurons conducts impulses from afferent to efferent
classifications of a neuron multipolar, unipolar, bipolar
membrane potential difference in electrical charge across the plasma membrane
resting membrane potential neuro not conducting electrical signals is resting
excitation of neuron stimulus triggers the opening of stimulus gate NA+ channels
depolarization movement of membrane potential to zero
preganglionic neuron conduct impulses from the brainstem or spinal cord to an au-tonomic ganglion,
postganglionic neuron conducts impulses away from the ganglion and to the effector
the sympathetic division has also been called thoracolumbar division
white ramus split away from other spinal nerve fibers by means of a small branch
gray ramus, Some postganglionic axons return to a spinal nerve by way of a short branch
the parasympathetic division has also been called craniosacral division
Axon terminals of autonomic neurons release either of two neu-rotransmitters norepinephrine (NE) or acetylcholine (ACh)
Axons that release NE adrenergic fibers.
Axons that release ACh cholinergic fibers.
The adrenergic receptors are of two main types, alpha (␣) receptors and beta (␤) receptors
The actions of NE and epinephrine are terminated in two ways. Most of the neurotransmitter molecules are taken back up by the synaptic knobs of postganglionic neurons, where they are broken down by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO). the remaining neurotransmitter molecules are eventually broken down by another enzy
The two main types of cholinergic receptors nicotinic (N) receptors and muscarinic (M) receptors
Created by: Catorraschulte



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