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Unit B: Foundations
History of Health Care
|Believed evil spirits and demons caused disease
|first to write down findings on health that were accurate; physicians were priests
|Believed one must cure body, mind and spirit; yet religion prohibited dissection
|Believed illness was caused by natural causes not as a punishment from the Gods
|Built aqueducts and sewers; believed body was regulated by humors that needed to stay in balance to prevent illness
|study of medicine was prohibited; monks and priests treated sick with prayer and ceremonies
|Bubonic Plaque killed large percentage of the population
|16th, 17th, 18th Century
|Many people still died from infections
|infection control methods were developed once microorganisms were associate with disease
|Discovered ABO blood groups, Insulin, antibiotics, vaccines, CAT scan and organ transplants were successful
|What is one way Congress is trying to control costs for government insurance plans such as Medicare and Medicaid.
|Diagnostic related groups (DRGs)
|Who developed an organized method to observe the human body and recorded the signs and symptoms of many diseases.
|The most rapid growth in health care occurred during
|the 20th century.
|Who used dissection in order to draw the human body more realistically.
|Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci
|What type of care promotes physical, emotional, social, intellectual, and spiritual well-being.
|Holistic health care
|What uses video, audio, and computer systems to provide medical and/or health care services.
|In ancient times, a treatment for insanity and epilepsy was boring a hole in the skull what was the process called?
|a process called trepanation.
|The first hospitals were established by the _________ when physicians began caring for patients in their homes.
|Public health and sanitation systems were first developed by the
|The Father of Medicine is
|Bifocals for glasses were invented by
|A vaccination for smallpox was developed in 1796 by
|Disinfection and antiseptics were first used to prevent infection during surgery by
|The founder of the American Red Cross in 1881 was
|The professional education of modern nurses was started by ____
|The individual whose studies formed the basis for psychology and psychiatry is ____.
|Penicillin was discovered in 1928 by ___
|Sir Alexander Fleming
|The polio vaccine was developed in 1952 by ____.
|The Alternative and Complementary Method practitioner who believes that a life energy flows through every living person in an invisible system of meridians is a/an ____.
|Chinese medicine practitioner
|Created the first mercury thermometer in 1714
|Invented the microscope in 1666
|Anton van Leeuwenhoek
|Invented the stethoscope in 1816
|Became the first female physician in the United States in 1849
|Discovered X-rays in 1895
|Developed the culture plate method to identify pathogens in 1882
|Isolated radium in 1910
|Established efficient and sanitary nursing units during the Crimean War
|Described the circulation of blood to and from the heart in 1628
|Proved microorganisms cause disease and created a vaccine for rabies
|What is the federal act that requires states to establish training and competency evaluation programs for nursing and geriatric assistants?
|Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1987
|What are some methods for cost containment?
|HMOs, and PPOs, mass or bulk purchasing, buy equipment and supplies in larger quantities to obtain a reduced price, early intervention and preventive services, providing care before acute or chronic disease occurs, and DRG's
|Uses very minute, dilute, doses of drugs to produce the symptoms of the disease being treated and to stimulate the immune system to remove toxins and heal the body;
|Controls rising cost of health care & achieves max. benefit for every dollar spent
|Care for the elderly
|Services provided at patient's home
|Home Health Care
|Use of video, audio, & computers to provide medical/health care services
|State of optimum health Balance between physical, mental, & social health
|Understanding personal feelings
|Showing concern, affection, respect
|Mental & Intellectual Wellness
|Using common sense, being creative, curious, etc
|Using values, ethics, morals to find meanings & purpose to life
|Treats the whole body, mind, & spirit Promotes body's natural healing power
|Holistic Health Care
|Complementary Health Care
|Conjunction with conventional therapies Alternative Health Care In place of biomedical therapies
|Alternative Health Care
|In place of biomedical therapies
|Re-establish balance in body through diet, exercise, body cleansing, & health of body, mind, & spirit
|Treatment & prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system
|Person who helps an individual change their behavior via verbal suggestions while in a trance-like state
|use only natural therapies to promote healing; avoid use of surgery and medical agents to treat disease
|monitoring the use of energy to control costs and conserve resources
|patients receive care without being admitted to hospitals or other care facilities
|Dissection of the body led to increased understanding of anatomy and physiology