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Heart

Cardiovascular System

What is the first organ to be developed? Heart
What is the first system to be developed? Cardiovascular System
Where does the heart start its development from? On what day? Mesoderm. Day 18-19 after fertilization
Where does the heart develop after mesodermal cells? Cardiogenic area
What does the endoderm cause the cardiogenic area to form into? Cardiogenic cords
What do the cardiogenic cords form into? Endocardial tubes
What do the endocardial tubes fuse into? On what day? Primitive heart tube. Day 21 after fertilization
What five regions do the primitive heart tube form into? On what day? Sinus venosus, primitive atrium, primitive ventricle, bulbus cordis, and the truncus arteriosus. Day 22 after fertilization
What does the sinus venosus develop into? Right atrium, coronary sinus, and sinoatrial node
What does the primitive atrium develop into? Right atrium, right auricle, part of the left atrium, and left auricle
What does the primitive ventricle give rise to? Left ventricle
What does the bulbus cordis develop into? Right ventricle
What does the truncus arteriosus give rise to? Ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
What day does the primitive heart tube elongate and fold over? Day 23
What day does the primitive atria and ventricles reorientate to the final position? Day 28
What does the thickening of mesoderm on the inner lining of the heart wall develop into? Endocardial cushions
What will the endocardial cushions fuse and divide into? Single atrioventricular canal Left and right atrioventricular canals
What does the interatrial septum develop into? Foramen Ovale
What does the interatrial septum divide into? Right atrium and left atrium
After birth, what does the interventricular septum turn into? Right and left ventricle
When does the atrioventricular valves form? 5-8 weeks
When does the semilunar valves form? 5-9 weeks
What is the size of the heart? Closed fist 12cm x 9cm x 6cm Average mass of 250-300g
Where does the heart rest? On the diaphragm, near the thoracic cavity
Where does the heart lie? Mediastinum
Where is the apex located? Left ventricle and rests of the diaphragm (anteriorly, inferiorly and to the left)
Where is the base of the heart located? Posterior aspect to the apex
Where is the base of the heart formed by? Atria of the heart and the left atrium
Pericardium Membrane that surrounds and protects the heart Confines the heart to its position (mediastinum)
Fibrous Pericardium Tough, inelastic, dense irregular connective tissue In the pericardium
Serous Pericardium Delicate membrane that forms a double layer around the heart
Outer parietal layer of the serous pericardium is fused into the... Fibrous Pericardium
Visceral layer of the serous pericardium is also known as the.... Epicardium
Epicardium One of the layers of the heart wall Adheres tightly to the surface of the heart External layer of the heart wall
Where is the pericardial fluid located? Betweeen the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium
Functin of the pericardial fluid Reduces fricition between the layers of the serous pericardium as the heart moves
Pericardial Cavity Space that contains the pericardial fluid
Function of the Fibrous Pericardium Prevents overstretching of the heart Provides protection Anchors heart to the mediastinum
What does the serous pericardium form? A double layer around the heart
What does the epicardium contain? Blood vessels, lymphatics, and vessels that supply the myocardium
Function of the Myocardium Responsible for the pumping action of the heart Middle layer of the heart wall
Endocardium Inner layer of the heart wall. Provides a smooth lining for the chambers of the heart and covers the valves Minimizes surface friction as blood passes through the heart
Atria 2 out of 4 chambers Receive blood from blood vessels returning blood to the heart
Ventricles 2 out of 4 chambers Eject blood from heart to blood vessels
Auricle Located on the surface of the atriums Increase the capacity of the atriums
Sulci Grooves on the surface of the heart Contain coronary blood vessels and fat
Coronary Sulcus Encircles most of the heart, marks the external boundary between the superior atria and inferior ventricles
Anterior Interventricular Sulcus Shallow groove on the surface of the heart Marks the external boundary between the right and left ventricles of the heart
Posterior Interventricular Sulcus Shallow groove on the surface of the heart Marks the external boundary between ventricles on the posterior aspect of the heart
Right atrium Right surface of the heart Receives blood from 3 veins: superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus
Right ventricle Anterior surface of the heart Blood passes from right ventricle through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary trunk and carries blood to the lungs
Left atrium Base of the heart Receives blood from the lungs through the pulmonary veins
Left ventricle Apex of the heart Carries blood throughout the body
Tricuspid Valve Located between the right ventricle and right atrium Makes sure blood flows in a forward direction form atrium to ventricle
Pulmonary Valve Located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery Regulates blood flow in the heart
Mitral Valve Located between the left atrium and ventricle Regulates the flow of blood from your lungs into the left ventricle
What blood does the mitral valve produce Oxygen Rich
Aortic valve Located between the left ventricle and the aorta Carries blood throughout the body
Most common damage to the mitral valve Mitral regurgitation
What happens during mitral regurgitation? Blood flows in the wrong directions
What closed circuits does the heart pump blood into? Systemic and Pulmonary circulation
What is the left side of the heart pump for? Systemic Circulation
What blood does the left side receive from the lungs? Oxygen Rich Blood
What does the left ventricle eject blood into? Aorta
What does the aorta split into? Small systemic arteries
Arteries give rise to smaller... Arterioles
Arterioles lead into... Systemic Capillaries
Blood unloads _____ and picks up ____ Oxygen Carbon Dioxide
Blood flows through one capillary and enters a.... Systemic Venule
Systemic Venule carries oxygen poor blood away from tissues and merge into larger.... Systemic Veins
Blood flowing from the systemic venule to the systemic veins allows the blood to flow back into the... Right atrium
The right side of the heart pumps for the.... Pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary circulation receives... Oxygen poor blood returning from the systemic circulation
Blood is ejected from the.... Right ventricle
Blood ejected from the right ventricle flow into the.... Pulmonary Trunk
The pulmonary trunk branches into the.... Pulmonary Arteries
Pulmonary Arteries carries blood to the ____ and ____ _____ Right and left lungs
Blood unloads _____ and picks up _____ Carbon Dioxide; Oxygen
Blood flows back into the _____ and returns to the ________ Pulmonary Veins; Left Atrium
What are the 2 different approaches to the chambers of the heart? Top and Bottom
What are the bottom chambers? Right and Left ventricles
The bottom chambers pump blood _____ of the heart Out
What are the top chambers? Right and Left atriums
The top chambers receive blood _____ into the heart Entering
When blood flows from the right to left, it can because of what? Septal Defect
What is a septal defect? Birth defect thats caused when the foramen ovale fails to close
What happens to the blood in a septal defect? Oxygenated blood is mixing with deoxygenated blood
Pulmonary Circuits blood through the ____ so it can become _____ Lungs; Oxygenated
Systemic Circuits blood through the rest of the _____ so it can provide _____ blood to the rest of the _____ Body; Oxygenated; Organs
________, ________, _______ flow ________ blood to the _______ Superior Vena Cava, Coronary Sinus, Inferior Vena Cava flow deoxygenated blood to the right atrium
______ flows _______ blood through the ______ into the _______ Right atrium flows deoxygenated blood through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle
_______ flows _______ blood through the ______ into the ______ Right ventricle flows deoxygenated blood through the pulmonary SL valve into the pulmonary trunk
______ flows _____blood through the ______ and ________ Pulmonary trunk flows deoxygenated blood through the right and left pulmonary arteries
_____ receive _____ blood and make it ______ blood Lungs receive deoxygenated blood and make it oxygenated blood
_____ pump _____ blood to the _____ and _____ Lungs pump oxygenated blood to the right and left pulmonary arteries
_____ and _____ pump ____ blood to the ______ Right and left pulmonary arteries pump oxygenated blood to the left atrium
______ pump _____ blood through the ______ Left atrium pump oxygenated blood through the left ventricle
_______ pump _____bloood through the _______ which is pumped to the ________ Left ventricle pump oxygenated blood through. the aortic SL valve which is pumped to the rest of the body
How thick is the right ventricle? 4-5mm thick
What does the right ventricle form? Most of the anterior surface of the heart
What is inside the right ventricle? Trabeculae Carneae (muscle fibers)
What are the cusps of the tricuspid valves connected to? Chordae tendineae
The chordae tendineae are connected to the.... Papillary muscles
What separates the right and left ventricle? Interventricular Septum
How does the blood pass from the right ventricle? Right Ventricle -> Pulmonary Valve -> Pulmonary Trunk
What does the Right Atrium form? Right surface of the heart
Where does the right atrium receive blood from? Superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava, and Coronary Sinus
How thick is the right atrium? 2-3mm
What does the inside of the posterior wall look like? Smooth
What does the inside of the anterior wall look like? Rough
Why is the inside of the anterior wall rough? Pectinate muscles
What is between the right and left atrium? Interatrial Septum
What is the oval depression in the septum called? Fossa Ovalis
What is the Fossa Ovalis an opening for? Interatrial Septum
Blood passes from the ______ into the ______ through the ______ Blood passes from the right atrium into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve
How thick is the left atrium? 2-3mm
What does the left atrium form the majority of? Base of the heart
Where does the left atrium receive blood from? Lungs
Where does the lungs receive blood from? Pulmonary Veins
The left atrium has a ______ ______ The left atrium has a smooth posterior wall
Why is the anterior wall smooth? Pectinate muscles in the auricle of the left atrium
Blood passes from the _____ into the _____ through the ______ Blood passes from the left atrium into the left ventricle through the mitral valve
What chamber is the thickest? Left Ventricle (10-15mm)
What chamber forms the apex of the heart? Left Ventricle
What does the left ventricle contain? Trabeculae Carneae and Chordae Tendineae
The chordae tendineae anchors to the _____ to the ______ The chordae tendineae anchors to the mitral valve to the papillary muscles
Blood passes from the _____ through the _____ into the ______ Blood passes from the left ventricle through the aortic valve into the ascending aorta
Blood from the aorta flows into the _____ Coronary Arteries
The blood that remains, passes through into the ______ and the ______ The blood that remains, passes through into the arch of the aorta and the descending aorta
The myocardial houses the.... 4 chambers of the heart
The walls are thicker in the myocardial because... The ventricles have to pump blood under high pressure over great distances
The ______ and _____ eject equal volumes of blood The right and left ventricles eject equal volumes of blood
The ____ side pumps a ____ distance to the _____ at _____ pressure The right side pumps a short distance to the lungs at lower pressure
The _____ pumps blood to _____ distances throughout the ______ The left ventricle pumps blood to great distances throughout the entire body
How does myocardial movement cause the heart valves to open and close? The valves in the myocardial contract and relax which causes the valves to open and close. Allows blood flow into each ventricle and out to the body
What is an atrial kick? The increase in force generated by the atria during contraction.
The flow of blood through the heart is primarily dictated by what? Tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral, and aortic valve
What does coronary circulation do? Provides blood flow to the myocardium
Why is coronary circulation needed? When the heart contracts, little blood flows into the coronary arteries because they're shut. When the heart relaxes, the pressure from the blood in the aorta propels blood through the coronary arteries into the capillaries and then the coronary veins
Anastomosis Surgical connection between adject blood vessels
Autorhythmicity Contractions of the heart that are controlled by specialized cardiac muscle cells that directly control the heart rate
Does the heart need to rely on the Nervous System to sustain a heartbeat? Yes because the ANS and hormones modify the timing and strength of each heartbeat. They don't establish a fundamental rhythm.
What is the most important factor in regulating heartrate? ANS and hormones released by the adrenal medullae
Myocardial contractility The strength of the contraction at any given preload
Conductive Cells Groups of cardiac muscle cells in the heart walls that send signals to the heart muscle to contract
Where are the components of conductive cells located? SA node, AV node, bundle of HIS and bundle branches
What does myocardial contractile cells form? Conductive systems of the heart
What do conductive cells do? Conduct impulses tha contract to pump blood throughout the body
Cardiac Muscle Cells Form a highly branches cellular network in the heart
Cardiac Muscle Fibers Connect to neighboring fibers by intercalated discs. Shorter and less circular transversely than skeletal muscle fibers
Created by: delainaxrepola
 

 



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