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Chapter 10 Chabner

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
acetylcholine Neurotransmitter chemical released at ends of nerve cells
afferent nerve Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord
arachnoid membrane Middle layer of the three membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
astrocyte Glial cell that transports water and salts from capillaries
autonomic nervous system Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
axon Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
blood-brain barrier Protective separation between the blood and brain cells that keeps substances (such as anticancer drugs) from penetrating capillary walls and entering the brain
cauda equine Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
cell body The part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
central nervous system (CNS) The brain and spinal cord
cerebellum The posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
cerebral cortex Outer region of the cerebrum; contains sheets of nerve cells; gray matter
cerebrospinal fluid Circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
cerebrum The largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscle activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory
cranial nerves Twelve pairs; carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve)
dendrite Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell; the first part to receive the nervous impulse
dura mater The thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord
efferent nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve
ependymal cell Glial cell that lines the membranes within the brain and spinal cord; helps form cerebrospinal fluid
ganglion (plural: ganglia) Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
glial cell (neuroglial cell) Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses; can reproduce itself
gyrus (plural: gyri) Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution
hypothalamus The portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and pituitary gland secretions
medulla oblangata The part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels
meniges Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
microglial cell Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system
Midbrain Uppermost portion of the brainstem
motor nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve
myelin sheath Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell; speeds impulse conduction
nerve Macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses
neuron Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body; parenchyma of the nervous system
neurotransmitter Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell; stimulates or inhibits another cell
oligodendroglial cell Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons; oligodendrocyte
parasympathetic nerves Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract
parenchyma Essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system; for the nervous system, neurons and nerves that carry impulses
peripheral nervous system Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves
pia mater The thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
plexus (plural: plexuses) A large, interlacing network of nerves
pons The part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain
receptor An organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves; the skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors
sciatic nerve The nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot
sensory nerve Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from receptor; afferent nerve
spinal nerves Thirty-one pairs arising from the spinal cord
stimulus (plural: sulci) Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure
sympathetic nerves Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntary in times of stress
synapse The space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells
thalamus main relay center of the brain; conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum
vagus nerve Tenth cranial nerve; branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach
ventricles of the brain Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid
Created by: JCA