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Fractures

QuestionAnswer
Fracture A break in the bone usually caused by an outside force (i.e. sports incidents, accidents, falls, osteoporosis, sudden impact, overuse)
How is it diagnosed? Normally with an x-ray
Severity Depends on location, age, amount of damage done to the bone and surrounding tissue
If not treated properly, fractures can have dangerous complications (i.e. damage to blood vessels, nerves and infections)
Signs and symptoms severe and immediate pain, passing out from pain, swelling, bruising, abnormal movement and a snap or pop when the break occurs
Types of Fractures Comminuted, Oblique, Transverse, Spiral, Compound, Greenstick
Comminuted splinters and contains small particles, can shatter into more and two pieces
Comminuted causes requires a large amount of force normally associated with high impact traumas (i.e. vehicle accidents, gunshot wounds, falling from a great height, trauma
Oblique Breaks at an angle across the bone and is usually the result of a sharp angled blow to the bone, looks splintered
Transverse Break straight across the bone, is the result of a sharp, direct blow or may be a stress fracture caused, for example, by prolonged running
Greenstick Usually occurs in children, whose still soft bones splinter without breaking in two. Sudden force causes only the outer side of the bent bone to break
Spiral Fracture caused by a twisting force that creates an oblique fracture around and through the bone
Compound Broken bone fragments lacerate soft tissue and protrute through an open wound in the skin. Happens due to sudden movements or actions
Treatment (need to "set" the bone) Immobilizing the bone, applying a cast, surgery, surgical placement of screws, plates or pins (wiring - broken jaw), pain management
Union of a Fracture Refers to healing of bone fracture fragments
Non-union of a Fracture Refers to the absence of healing in a fracture
Malunion of a Fracture Refers to the healing of a fracture with incorrect anatomical alignment
Prognosis Every case is different, severity depends on location, amount of bone damage, full recovery could take weeks or months, surgical repair has normal risk, may have an impact in later life
Prevention Maintain a healthy diet and exercise routine, eating calcium rich foods, avoid trauma
Created by: MLevy44
 

 



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