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Anatomy_Unit2

QuestionAnswer
Interstitial Growth means The process of growing LONGER (elongate)
Apositional Growth means The process of growing WIDER (widen)
Irregular shaped bones do this BOTH Intramembranous and Endochondral Ossification
Intramembranous Ossification *Forms mainly FLAT bones of skull *Bone develops BETWEEN layers of fibrous membrane *Can be seen in FONTANELS (baby's soft spots)
What is the lineage of BONE cells? Mesenchyme OsteoPROGENITORS OsteoBLASTS OsteoCYTES
Embryonic Connective Tissue cells change into _______________ to form bone Osteoblasts
What are the steps for Intramembranous Ossification? *Mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoprogenitors *The osteoPROGENITORS then differentiate into osteoBLASTS *OsteoBLASTS lay down OSTEOID *Osteoid forms SPICULES that then differentiate into TRABECULAE *Trabeculae then form SPONGY bone *ENDOSTEUM then forms around the spongy bone *Spongy Bone then gets remodeled into COMPACT bone PERIOSTEUM forms around compact bone
Any connective tissue (fluid, supportive, CT proper) starts with what? Embryonic Connective Tissue or Mesenchyme
Endochondral Ossification *Forms mainly LONG BONES of body (especially appendages) * CARTILAGE MODEL formed first (like rubber dog bone) *Bone replaces cartilage over time *Some cartilage remains at EPIPHYSEAL (GROWTH) PLATE (until growth ends) and ends of bone (for life) *DIAPHYSIS is the primary center of ossification
What are the steps for Endochondral Ossification? *Mesenchyme cells differentiate into CHONDROBLASTS *Chondroblasts lay down CHONDRIN by infusing cartilage fibers with lots & lots of water until they fuse together *Build more & more chondrin & increase the length & thickness of the hyaline cartilage model (Interstitial). *Chondroblasts get stuck in lacunae and create CHONDROCYTES that will maintain the cartilage matrix *Will lay down so much that you have your bone that is completely made of hyaline cartilage. *Finishing off will form a PERICHONDRIUM
What is hyaline cartilage like? A wet, lubricated water balloon that is excellent for shock absorption
Secondary Center of Ossification is where? Proximal and distal epiphyses
Bone growth Throughout life bone continues to grow in length & width until 15-20 years old but will continue to RE-FORM bone *SPONGY BONE is replaced every 4 years COMPACT BONE is replaced every 10 years
Appositional growth *like tree rings *Bone cells lay down new bone tissue along the outside of the bone (deep to the PERIOSTEUM) *Bone cells also break down deep to the ENDOSTEUM
Interstitial growth *Bone replaces cartilage, where cartilage cells have died *Occurs along EPIPHYSEAL (growth) plate in both the PRIMARY and SECONDARY growth plates
Irregular Bone Formation *Often includes BOTH endochondral and intramembranous ossification *Many bones we view as a single bone in adults actually develop in multiple pieces *Examples of this are: sphenoid, ethmoid, many cranial bones, vertebra, and coxal bones *Vertebrae don't finish their fusions until your mid-20's *Intramembranous ossification happens first, then endochondral ossification
Osteoporosis Porous bone
What occurs in osteoporosis? *An imbalance of bone cells *Bone broken down faster than bone is formed (OsteoCLASTS break down bone faster than osteoBLASTS lay down bone) *On the INSIDE of the bone *WEIGHT-BEARING bones most commonly affected, such as the femur, tibia, & vertebrae
Who has the propensity for osteoporosis? *Anybody, but lately is increasing in YOUNGER women (since the 80's *Usually in ELDERLY women after MENOPAUSE *SMALL, THIN people. WHITE or ASIAN at increased risk *Family history *Cancer patients because cancer cells stimulate OSTEOCLASTS and whether the treatment causes depletion of OSTEOBLASTS (that break down bone)
How does one prevent osteoporosis? *Increase strength training *Drink more milk or fortified juice *Eat DARK, LEAFY GREENS (kale, spinach, etc) *Dandelion greens have the optimal ratio for CALCIUM/PHOSPHATE
FLAT bones Cranial skull bones, such as PARIETAL
LONG bones Bones of appendages, such as FEMUR, HUMERUS, etc
SHORT bones CUBE-like bones of wrist; such as CARPALS, TARSALS
IRREGULAR bones VARIABLE ("TRASH CAN") shape; such as vertebrae, hips, and coxal *Do both INTRAMEMBRANOUS and ENDOCHONDRAL ossification
SESAMOID bones SESAME SEED shape; such as the PATELLA (knee cap) *Develop with soft tissues and within TENDONS of muscles and what they do is help INCREASE the FORCE of that muscle.
Function of the Skeleton 1 SUPPORT of the soft tissues of body
Function of the Skeleton 2 *MINERAL RESERVOIR (calcium / phosphate) *98% of body's calcium is in bones
Function of the Skeleton 3 *ENERGY STORAGE: (Yellow, Older Marrow) *Fat stored in the MEDULLARY CAVITY of the long bones
Function of the Skeleton 4 *BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION (Red, Younger Bone Marrow) *Red bone marrow in cavities of SPONGY BONE
Function of the Skeleton 5 *Protection of VITAL ORGANS
Function of the Skeleton 6 LEVERAGE and MOVEMENT
Mesenchyme Embryonic Connective Tissue (looks like CT Proper)
Mesenchymal Lineage Mesenchyme begat CT PROPER, SUPPORTING CT, AND FLUID CT; CT Proper begat DENSE REGULAR & ADIPOSE; Dense Regular begat FIBROBLASTS which became FIBROCYTES; Adipose which became ADIPOCYTES; Supporting CT begat CARTILAGE and BONE; Cartilage begat CHONDROBLASTS which became CHONDROCYTES; Bone begat OSTEOBLASTS which became OSTEOCYTES; Fluid CT begat BLOOD
Cartilage Characteristics 1 *NO Blood Vessels or Nerves *Gas / Nutrients diffuse to cells from BV surrounding *Chondrocytes adapted to low O2
Cartilage Characteristics 2 *Consists primarily of WATER (60-80 %) *RESISTS compression *Good at shock absorption
Cartilage Characteristics 3 *Surrounded by PERICHONDRIUM *Not around fibrocartilage *Like a GIRDLE holding things in place *AVASCULAR; helps in GROWTH & REPAIR *Provides GAS & NUTRIENTS to CARTILAGE CELLS
More Cartilage Characteristics *Growth ENDS at 18-20 years of age *Little HEALING in adulthood *Collagen RESISTS tension *POOR at resisting "SHEARING FORCES" (most common type of injury)
Different Types of Cartilage CELLS *ChondroBLASTS (Immature cartilage cells) *ChondroCYTES (Mature, dividing cells trapped in lacunae)
Different Types of Cartilage *HYALINE *ELASTIC *FIBROCARTILAGE
Hyaline Cartilage *Most ABUNDANT *Has FIBERS (too small to see) *LOCATED on end of bone (articular surface), growth plate, and costal cart (ribs) *MAINTAIN cartilage in certain areas in the articular surfaces (for SMOOTHER gliding)
Elastic Cartilage *MANY elastic fibers *TOLERATES repeated bending, recoil *Located within EARS, NOSE, EPIGLOTTIS *Looks like hyaline but has many more elastic fibers *Found in structures that need to bend
Fibrocartilage *ABUNDANT collagen fibers *RESISTS twisting & compression (REALLY STRONG) *NO perichondrium *LOCATED in Intervertebral discs, menisci *Looks similar to Dense Regular - look for chondrocytes in lacunae (EYEBALLS) *In structures with lots of IMPACT
Gross Anatomy of OSSEOUS TISSUE (bone) *Articular Cartilage *Spongy Bone *Proximal Epiphysis *Epiphyseal Line (scar) *Periosteum *Endosteum *Diaphysis (shaft) *Compact Bone *Medullary Cavity (or Marrow Cavity) *Distal Epiphysis
Trabeculae Bony projections
What THREE structures do bones have? *Blood Vessels *Nerves *Lymphatic Vessels
What TWO types of OSSEOUS tissue does every bone have? *Spongy *Compact *They have the SAME matrix and bone cells
Structures WITHIN Spongy & Compact Bone *Concentric Lamellae *Interstitial Lamellae *Trabeculae of Spongy Bone *Capillary *Small Vein *Circumferential Lamellae *Osteons *Periosteum *Lacunae with Osteocytes *Artery *Central Canal *Perforating Canal *Canaliculi
Characteristics of Compact Bone *Bone forms CONCENTRIC rings of MATRIX (osteon) *Bone cells are TRAPPED within cavities (lacunae) *Organized "NESTED RINGS" in periphery of bone *Replaced EVERY 10 years (like a passport) *Arrangement of collagen fibers are perpendicular to each other (allows for flexibility)
Canaliculi Transfer *Mineralized Matrix - NO diffusion through the matrix *Protoplasmic (arm) extension of adjacent cells connect within canaliculi *Waste, nutrients, gasses, etc. diffuse from cell to cell
Characteristics of Spongy (Cancellous) Bone *Honeycomb-like network of bone *Form TRABECULAE (beams) to resist directional stresses *Cavities filled with RED BONE MARROW *FOUND in epiphysis & center of bone organ *Lots of empty space and looks porous *REPLACED every 4 years
Beams of Bone *Allows COMPRESSION down MEDIAL DIAPHYSIS *Allows TENSION along LATERAL DIAPHYSIS MEDIAL = COMPRESSION LATERAL = TENSION
Changing from Spongy Bone to Compact Bone *Bone formation at the surface of the bone produces ridges that parallel a blood vessel *The ridges enlarge and create a deep pocket *The ridges meet and fuse, trapping the vessel inside the bone Compact bone can always change back to spongy bone.
Micro-Anatomy of Bone *Bone is a "supporting connective tissue" specialized within a matrix *Bone cells within Osteoid
Non-Cellular Matrix (Osteoid): ORGANIC COMPOUNDS *Provides FLEXIBILITY (won't just snap) *Primarily COLLAGEN FIBERS *Resists TWISTING & TENSION
Non-Cellular Matrix (Osteoid): INORGANIC COMPOUNDS *Provides DURABILITY & HARDNESS *Calcium & Phosphate thru our eating *98% of calcium is in our bones
Bone Cells: SPECIALIZED CELLS *OSTEOBLAST *OSTEOCYTE *OSTEOCLAST *OSTEOPROGENITOR
osteoBLAST *Immature bone cells *Secretes new matrix (osteoid) *Comes from MESENCHYMAL stem cells
osteoCYTE *Mature bone cells *Trapped cell in lacunae *"Resident" cell *Comes from MESENCHYMAL stem cells
osteoCLAST *Aren't part of the "Osteo lineage" and may be derived from WBC's (from leukocytes) *BREAKS down old matrix (osteoid) *RELEASES calcium & phosphate dissolving bony matrix *Do OPPOSITE of osteoblasts
osteoPROGENITOR *Will form all new bone cells *Can divide (MITOSIS) *Are part of the lineage *Comes from MESENCHYMAL stem cells
Created by: jwlscriv
 

 



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