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anatomy the study of the form and structure of an organism
physiology the study of the processes of living organisms, or why and how they work
pathophysiology the study of how disease occurs and the responses of living organisms to disease processes
protoplasm the basic substance of life
cell protoplasm forms the basic unit of structure and function in all living things; microscopic structures that carry on all the functions of life
cell membrane the outer protective covering of the cell; also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma
cytoplasm a semifluid inside the cell but outside the nucleus; contains 70-90% water, proteins, lipids (fats), carbohydrates, minerals, and salts.
organelles cell structures that help a cell function, are located in the cytoplasm; the main organelles are the nucleus, mitochondria, ridosomes, lysosomes, centrioles, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum
nucleus mass in the cytoplasm;separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane that contains pores to allow substances to pass between the nucleus & cytoplasm;also the brain of the cell b\c it controls many cell activities
nucleolus one or more small round bodies located inside the nucleus and important in cell reproduction
chromatin located in the nucleus and made of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein
genes the structures that carry inherited characteristics
genome the total mass of genetic instruction humans inherit from their parents
centrosome located in the cytoplasm and near the nucleus
mitochondria rod-shaped organelles located throughout the cytoplasm; called the furnaces or powerhouses of the cell because they break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
ATP adenosine triphosphate is the major energy source of the cell
Golgi apparatus a stack of membrane layers located in the cytoplasm. produces, stroes, and packages secretions for discharge from the cell
endoplasmic reticulum a fine network of tubular structures located in the cytoplasm. allows for for the transport of materials into and out of the nucleus, and also aides in teh synthesis and storage of proteins.
rough endoplasmic reticulum contains ribosomes, which are the sites for protein synthesis (production)
smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not contain ribosomes and is not present in all cells
vacuoles pouchlike structures found throughout the cytoplasm that have a vacuolar membrane with the same structure as the cell membrane; filled with watery substances, stored food, or waste products
lysosomes oval or round bodies found throughout the cytoplasm. contains digestive enzymes that digest and destroy old cells, bacteria , and foreign materials, an important function of the body's immune system
pinocytic vesicles pocketlike folds in the cell membrane; allow large molecules such as proteins and fats to enter the cell
mitosis most cells reproduce by dividing into two identical cells; a form of asexual reproduction
meiosis sex cells (gametes) divide. two separate cell division
ova female cells
spermatozoa or spem male cells
zygote when an ovum and sperm join to create a new life the new ce;; has 46 chroosomes
stem cells the ability to transform themselves into any of the body's specialized cells and perform many different functions. also located in blastocyst
blastocyst a hollow ball-like mass of cells
tissue when cells of the same type join together for a common purpose; are 60-90% water with various dissolved substances. water is salty & is called tissue fluid
dehydration an insufficient amount of tissue fluid
edema an excess amount of tissue fluid swelling of the tissue occurs
types of muscle tissues epithelial, connective, nerve, and muscle
epithelial tissue covers the surface of the body and is the main tissue in the skin
connective tissue the supporting fabric of organs and other body parts; two main classes soft and hard
nerve tissue made up of special cells called neurons
muscle tissue produces power and movement by contraction of muscle fibers; three main kinds skeletal, cardiac, and visceral (smooth)
organ two or more tissues joined together to perform a specific function
system organs and other body parts joined together to perform a particular function; basic systems integumentary, skeletal, muscular, cirulatory, lymphatic, nervous, respiratory, digestive, urinary (excretory), endcrine, and reproductive
Created by: Irismay07



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