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CSA Chapter 3

Musculoskeletal System

ankyl/o crooked or stiff
arthr/o joint
articul/o joint
brachi/o arm
cervic/o neck
chondr/o cartilage (gristle)
cost/o rib
crani/o skull
dactyl/o digit (finger or toe)
fasci/o fascia (a band)
femor/o femur
fibr/o fiber
kyph/o humpback
lei/o smooth
lord/o bent
lumb/o loins (lower back)
muscul/o muscle
my/o muscle
myel/o bone marrow, spinal cord
myos/o muscle
oste/o bone
patell/o knee cap
pelv/i pelvis (basin) or hip bone
radi/o radius
rhabd/o rod-shaped or striated (skeletal)
sarc/o flesh
scoli/o twisted
spondyl/o vertebra
stern/o sternum (breastbone)
ten/o tendon (to stretch)
tend/o tendon (to stretch)
tendin/o tendon (to stretch)
thorac/o chest
ton/o tone or tension
uln/o ulna
vertebr/o vertebra
appendicular skeleton bones of the shoulder girdle, pelvis, and limbs (arms and legs)
axial skeleton bones of the skull, vertebral column, chest, and hyoid bone
bone specialized connective tissue composed of osteocytes (bone cells); forms the skeleton
compact bone tightly solid bone tissue that forms the exterior of bones
spongy bone mesh-like bone tissue found in the interior of bones, and surrounding the medullary cavity
cancellous bone mesh-like bone tissue found in the interior of bones, and surrounding the medullary cavity
long bones elongated bones of the arms and legs
short bones square-shaped bones of the wrist and ankles
flat bones thin, flattened bones of the ribs, shoulder blades (scapulae), pelvis, and skull
irregular bones bones of the vertebrae and face
seasamoid bones round bones found near joint (the patella)
epiphysis wide ends of a long bone (physis=growth)
diaphysis shaft of a long bone
metaphysis growth zone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis during development of a long bone
endosteum membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone
medullary cavity cavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrow
bone marrow soft connective tissue within the medullary cavity of bones
red bone marrow functions to form red blood cells, some white blood cells, and platelets; found in the cavities of most bones in infants and in the flat bones of adults
yellow bone marrow gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones; functions as storage for fat tissue and is inactive in the formation of blood cells
periosteum a fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the bone
articular cartilage a gristle-like substance on bones where they articulate
articulation the point where two bones come together; also called joint
joint the point where two bones come together; also called articulation
bursa a fiborous sac between certain tendons and bones that is lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluis
intervertebral discs a flat, plate like structure composed of an outer fibrous park (annulus fibrosus) that surrounds a central gelatinous mass (nucleus pulpous) between the vertebrae that reduces friction
annulus fibrosus ring of fibrocartilage and fibrous tissue forming the circumference of the intervertebral disk; surrounds the nucleus pulposus
nucleus pulposus the soft, fibrocartilaginous central portion of intervertebral disk
ligament a flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
joint capsule sac enclosing the articulating ends of bones forming a synovial joint
synovial membrane membrane lining the capsule of a joint
synovial fluid joint-lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane
muscle tissue composed of fibers that can contract, causing movement of an organ or part of the body
striated muscle voluntary muscle attached to the skeleton; also called skeletal muscle
skeletal muscle voluntary muscle attached to the skeleton; also called striated muscle
smooth muscle involuntary muscle found in internal organs
cardiac muscle muscle of the heart
origin of a muscle muscle end attached to the bone that does not move when the muscle contracts
insertion of a muscle muscle end attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts
tendon a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
fascia a band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle
anatomic position to stand upright, facing forward, feet pointed forward and slightly apart, arms and palms facing forward
body planes reference planes for indicating the location or direction of body parts
frontal plane (coronal plane) a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
sagittal plane vertical division of the body into right and left portions
tranverse plane horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions; also known as horizontal plane
anterior front of the body; also known as ventral
ventral front of the body
posterior back of the body; also known as dorsal
dorsal back of the body
anterior-posterior (AP) from front to back, as in reference to the direction of an x-ray beam
posterior-anterior (PA) from back to front, as in reference to the direction of an x-ray beam
superior situated above or directed upward (toward the head) also known as cephalic
cephalic situated above another structure, toward the head
inferior situated below or directed downward (away from the head)
caudal situated below another structure, away form the head; also known as interior
proximal toward the beginning or origin of a structure
distal away from the beginning or origin of a structure
medial toward the middle (midline)
lateral toward the side
axis the imaginary line that runs through the center of the body or body part
erect normal standing position
decubitus lying down, especially in bed
prone lying face down and flat
recumbent lying down
supine horizontal recumbent; lying flat on the back
flexion bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased
extension straightening at the joint so that the angle between the bones is increased
abduction movement away from the body
adduction movement toward the body
rotation circular movement around an axis
eversion turning outward (of a foot)
inversion turning inward (of a foot)
pronation turning of the palmar surface (palm of the hand) or plantar surface (sole of the foot) downward or backward
supination turning of the palmar surface (palm of the hand) or planter surface (sole of the foot) upward or forward
dorsiflexion bending of the foot or the toes upward
plantar flexion bending of the sole of the foot by curling the toes toward the ground
range of motion (ROM) total motion possible in a joint, described by the terms related to body movement (ability to flex, extend, abduct, or adduct); measured in degrees
goniometer instrument used to measure joint angles
arthralgia joint pain
atrophy shrinking of muscle size
crepitation grating sound sometimes made by the movement of a joint or by broken bones (also called crepitus)
exostosis a projection arising from a bone that develops from cartilage
flaccid flabby, relaxed, or having defective or absent muscle tone
hypertrophy increased in the size of tissue like muscle
hypotonia reduced muscle tone or tension
myalgia muscle pain; also called myodynia
myodynia muscle pain; also called myalgia
osteodynia bone pain' also called ostealgia
ostealgia bone pain; also called osteodynia
rigor stiffness; stiff muscle; also called rigidity
rigidity stiffness; stiff muscle; also called rigor
spasm drawing in; involuntary contraction of muscle
spastic uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles, causing stiff and awkward movements (resembles spasm)
tetany tension; prolonged, continuous muscle contraction
tremor shaking; rhythmic muscular movement
ankylosis stiff joint contition
arthritis inflammation of the joints characterized by pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and limitation of motion; there are more than 100 different types of arthritis
osteoarthritis (OA) most common form of arthritis and most commonly associated with aging (wear-and-tear arthritis); also called degenerative arthritis and degenerative joint disease
degenerative arthritis most common form of arthritis, especially affecting the weight-bearing joints (knee or hip), characterized by the erosion of articular cartilage; also called osteoarthritis and degenerative joint disease (DJD)
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) most crippling form of arthritis characterized by chronic, systemic inflammation most often affecting joints and synovial membranes causing ankylosis and deformity
gouty arthritis acute attacks of arthritis, usually in a single joint (especially in the great toe), caused by hyperuricemia (an excessive level of uric acid in the blood)
bony necrosis (sequestrum) bone tissue that has died from loss of blood supply, such as can occur after a fracture
bunion abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe caused by inflammation of the bursa
bursitis inflammation of the bursa
chrondromalacia softening of cartilage
degenerative joint disease characterized by the wearing away of the articular cartilage within the joints
epiphysitis inflammation of the epiphyseal regions of the long bone
fracture (Fx) broken or cracked bone
closed fracture broken bone with no open wound; also called a simple fracture
open fracture compound fracture; broken bone with an open wound
fracture line the line of the break in a broken bone (oblique, spiral, or transverse
comminuted fracture bone shattered into many small pieces
spiral fracture bone break in which the fracture line is helical, usually resulting from a twisting injury
transverse fracture bone break in which the fracture line forms a right angle with the longitudinal axis of the bone
greenstick fracture bending and incomplete break of bone; most often seen in children
herniated disk protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve
myeloma bone marrow tumor
mytositis inflammation of muscle
myoma muscle tumor
leiomyoma smooth muscle tumor
leiomyosarcoma malignant smooth muscle tumor
rhabdomyoma skeletal muscle tumor
rhabdomyosarcoma malignant skeletal muscle tumor
muscular dystrophy a category of genetically transmitted diseases characterized by progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles; Duchenne type is most common
osteoma bone tumor
osteosarcoma type of malignant bone tumor
osteomalacia disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency
rickets osteomalacia in children; causes bone deformity
osteomyelitis infection of the bone marrow, causing inflammation
osteoporosis condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity, causing bones to become brittle and to fracture more easily (porosis=passage)
spinal curvatures curvatures of the spine or spinal column
kyphosis anteriorly concave curvature of the thoracic spine (humped-back condition)
lordosis anterior convex curvature of the lumbar spine (sway-back condition)
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (S-shaped curve)
spondylolisthesis forward slipping of a lumbar vertebra (listhesis=slipping)
spondylosis stiff, immobile condition of vertebrae caused by joint degeneration
sprain injury of a ligament caused by joint trauma but without joint dislocation or fracture
subluxation partial dislocation (luxation=dislocation)
tendinitis inflammation of a tendon; also called tendonitis
tendonitis inflammation of a tendon; also called tendinitis
electromyogram (EMG) a neurodiagnostic, graphic record of the electrical activity of muscle both at rest and during contraction; used to diagnose neuromusculoskeletal disorders (muscular dystrophy); usually performed by a neurologist
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) non-ionizing (no x-ray) imaging technique using magnetic fields and radio-frequency waves to visualize anatomic structures; useful in orthopedic studies to detect joint, tendon, and vertebral disc discorders
nuclear medicine imaging an ionizing imaging technique using radioactive isotopes
radionuclide organ imaging an ionizing imaging technique using radioactive isotopes
bone scan a nuclear scan (radionuclide image) of bone tissue to detect a tumor or malignancy
radiography an imaging modality using x-ray rays; commonly used in orthopedics to visualize the extremities, ribs, back, shoulders, and joints
arthogram a radiograph of a joint taken after the injection of a contrast medium
computed tomography (CT) a specialized x-ray procedure producing a series of cross-sectional images that are processed by a computer into a two-dimensional or three-dimensional image; also called computed axial tomography (CAT)
sonography ultrasound imaging; a non-ionizing technique that is useful in orthopedics to visualize muscles, ligaments, displacements, and dislocations or to guide a therapeutic intervention, such as that performed during arthroscopy
amputation partial or complete removal of a limb (AKA=above-knee amputation; BKA=below-knee ampuatuion)
arthrocentesis puncture for aspiration of a joint
arthrodesis binding or fusing of joint surfaces
arthroplasty repair or reconstruction of a joint
arthroscopy procedure using an arthroscope to examine, diagnose, and repair a joint from within
bone grafting transplantation of a piece of bone from one site to another to repair a skeletal defect
bursectomy excision of a bursa
myoplasty repair of a muscle
open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of a fracture internal surgical repair of a fracture by bring bones back into alignment and fixing them in place with devices such as plates, screws, and pins
osteoplasty repair of a bone
osteotomy an incision into a bone
spondylosyndesis spinal fusion
tenotomy division of a tendon by incision to repair a deformity caused by shortening of a muscle
closed reduction, external fixation of a fracture external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment along with application of an external device to protect and hold the bone in place while healing
casting use of a stiff, solid dressing around a limb or other body part to immobilize it during healing
splinting use of a rigid device to immobilize or restrain a broken bone or injured body part; provides less support than a cast, but can be adjusted more easily to accommodate swelling from an injury
traction (Tx) application of a pulling force to a fractured bone pr dislocated joint to maintain proper position during healing
closed reduction, percutaneous fixation of a fracture external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment, followed by insertion of one or more pins through the skin to maintain position; often includes use of an external device called a fixator to keep the fracture immobilized during healing
orthosis use of an orthopedic appliance to maintain a bone's position or to provide limb support (back, knee, or wrist)
physical therapy (PT) treatment to rehabilitate patients disabled by illness or injury; involves many different modalities (methods), such as exercise, hydrotherapy, diathermy, and ultrasound
prothesis an artificial replacement for a missing body part or a device used to improve a body function, such as an artificial limb, hip, or joint
analgesic a drug that relives pain
narcotic a potent analgesic with addictive properties
anti-inflammatory a drug that reduces inflammation
antipyretic a drug that relieves fever
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) a group of drugs with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties (ibuprofen, aspirin) commonly used to treat arthritis
A anterior
AKA above knee amputation
AP anterior-posterior
BKA below knee amputation
BP blood pressure
CAT computed axial tomography
CC chief complaint
CT computed tomography
DJD degenerative joint disease
EMG electroyogram
Fx fracture
HPI history of present illness
Hx history
IMP impression
L&W living and well
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
NAD no acute distress
NKDA no known drug allergies
NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
OA osteoarthritis
ORIF open reduction, internal fixation
P posterior or pulse
PA posterior-anterior
PE physical examination
PMH past medical history
PT physical therapy
R respirations
RA rheumatoid arthritis
ROM range of motion
ROS review of systems
SH social history
T temperature
Tx traction
VS vital signs
crepitus grating sounds sometimes made by the movement of a joint or broken bones; also called crepitation
complex fracture displaced fracture that requires manipulation or surgery to repair
Created by: alexandramila
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