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APHY 101 Ch 1 - 6

APHY 101 - Ch 1 - 6 LearnSmart Questions

Extracellular fluid is the fluid located _______ the cells of the body. outside
Which of the following two cavities have an associated serous membrane? Pleural and Abdominal cavities
What are the 3 components of homeostatic mechanism Effector Control center (set point) Receptor
The definition of the word root “homeo-” Same
The branch of science that studies body functions _______ physiology
Place in order, starting at the top, the sequence of events that occurs in response to a change in the internal environment. 1. Change occurs in the internal environment (stimulus) 2. Receptor transmits information about the status of the internal environment 3. The information sent is compared to the set point by the control center 4. Effectors respond to directions to
The most abundant substance in human body is _________ water
What is the difference between anatomy and physiology? Anatomy is the science of examining form and organizations of structures Physiology is the science of examining function and processes of body parts.
Sequence to how the body responds when temp rises above control center set point 1. Body temp rises 2. Thermoreceptors transmit signals to the hypothalamus 3. Hypothalamus detects a positive deviation from set point, sends signals to effectors 4. Skin blood vessels dilate, sweat glads secrete sweat 5. Body temp decreases b
A structure, molecule, or cell that detects a stimulus is called what? a receptor
The ________ portion of the body includes the upper and lower limbs. appendicular
A structure located _______ another is posterior to it. in back of
The term ______ refers to the navel, or belly button. umbilical
The microscopic study of tissues is called _______ histology
A structure described as being lateral is ______ away from the midline
What role does oxygen play in the maintenance of life? Oxygen is used to drive the extraction of energy from food nutrients.
Food is a general term for nutrients that ___________ provide raw material for growth and repair of living matter supply chemical energy that can be converted to a form cells can use.
The visceral __________ is the specific membrane that covers the surface of the abdominopelvic organs peritoneum
An example of a stimulus is ______ a specific change in the condition of the environment
The internal organs of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are referred to as the ______ viscera
What is name of the region that is also known as the buttocks? gluteal region
The front aspect of the body can be described as frontal or _______ ventral or anterior
The armpit is the ______ region of the body. axillary
Which homeostatic mechanism results in a response that return the body’s condition towards normal levels? negative feedback
Water contributes to the maintenance of life in many ways, including which three ways regulation of body temp, serving as a solvent inside cells as well as in fluids that transport substances throughout the body, and serving as a medium for chemical reactions in the body
What is the difference between Visceral pleura and Parietal pleura? Visceral pleura is attached to the lung surface Parietal pleura lines parts pf the thoracic cavity
The dorsum is the_______ posterior side
True or False, Cells depend on one another. True
The _______ environment is the environment cells live in internal
Organelles are found within _______ cells
Three of the following functions of the lymphatic system It defends the body against infections by removing disease-causing microorganisms and viruses from tissue fluid, it carries certain fatty substances away from the digestive organs and into the bloodstream, and it transports some of the tissue fluid back t
The physiological events that obtain, release, and use energy are largely part of __________ . metabolism
What organ system would include the thyroid gland and pancreas? Endocrine
What organ system is responsible for coordination and integration of bodily functions as well as detecting changes inside and outside the body? nervous
During a race, the body temperature of a runner increases. The runner responds by perspiring (sweating), which lowers body temperature. This process is an example of a __________. negative feedback mechanism
The lungs are __________ to the heart. lateral
The knee is __________ to the ankle. proximal
The serous membrane that lines the wall of the abdominal cavity is called the __________ . The membrane that covers the surface of the abdominopelvic organs is called the __________ . parietal peritoneum; visceral peritoneum
What is the basic unit of function and structure in the human body? cell
What is the most abundant compound in the human body, accounting for two-thirds of the weight of the body? Water
What is CO2? Carbon dioxide
What are 3 examples of lipids? steroids triglycerides fats
Molecules that are non-polar, repel water, and/or do not dissolve in water Hydrophobic
A reactant molecule break to form simpler molecules, atoms, and or ions, the reaction is called decomposition
Carbohydrate molecules formed of many simple sugars are classified as _________________ polysaccharides complex carbohydrates
What two statements can describe a solution with a neutral pH? pH is 7 Solution has an equal amount of H+ and OH-
Protons and neutrons are found within _____ the nucleus
A _____________ bond is a weak attraction between a slightly positive region of one arm and a slightly negative region of another. hydrogen
A single covalent bond has ______ pair/s of shared electrons. one
Inorganic salts are sources for ions (electrolytes) in the body. Name any four ions that are important to the functioning of the body. Sodium ions, Potassium ions, Chloride ions, Calcium ions, bicarbonate ions, carbonate ions, hydrogen ions, magnesium ions, phosphate ions, sulfate ions
What is the definition of the molecule? A particle formed by the chemical union of two or more atoms
Molecules that influence the rate of chemical reactions without being changed themselves are called ________ catalysts - catalysts speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy by binding to the reactants and bringing them together, or splitting them apart. The catalyst is unchanged and can do the same gain. Example in living organisms is enzymes
What is the definition of matter? Anything that takes up space
What are three of many functions of proteins within the human body? Proteins carry substances within the blood Proteins function as receptors on surface of cells Proteins catalyze chemical reactions Fact: More than 200k types of proteins. Structural materials, energy sources, chemical messengers, combine with car
What is the classification of fatty acids with one or more double bonds within their carbon chain? unsaturated fats
Which prefix means “equal” or the “the same”? Mono- Lyt- Syn- Iso- Iso-
The molecules or atoms that made during a chemical reaction are called ______ products synthesis reactants decomposition Products
A __________ reaction is a type of chemical reaction that occurs when two or more reactants bond toughener to form a larger, more complex product. products synthesis reactants decomposition synthesis
A chemical reaction that is classified as a ___________ reaction is one in which the product(s) can later be changed back to the original reactants(s). reversible exchange decomposition reversible
The components of substances that are ___________ separate when the substance is placed in water. ionically bound covalently bound radioactive ionically bound
A substance such as NaCl (sodium chloride) dissociates in water, releasing ions. The solution can now conduct an electrical current. Therefore, this substance (NaCl) is called an ________ electrolyte
Compounds that release hydrogen ions (H+) when they dissociate in water are classified as ____________ acids
Compounds called __________ bind hydrogen ions (H+), or release ions (such as OH) that combine with H+. bases - substances that release ions that combine with hydrogen ions are called bases.
What does the pH indicate about a solution? The hydrogen ion concentration of the solution
Indicate which pH value is considered basic? 7.0 3.0 10.0 10.0
Which two statements describe a solution that is basic? more H+ than OH- more OH- than H+ pH of 7.0 pH of 12.5 pH of 4.3 more OH- than H+ pH of 12.5
When a ________ occur, chemical bonds are formed or broken. chemical reaction
During a chemical reaction, the molecules that enter the reaction are called the ____________. The molecules that result from the reaction are called the ____________. reactants; products
What is the term for the molecules or atoms that result from a chemical reaction? products
Choose four functions of water in the body Catalyzes metabolic reactions Transport of nutrients and wastes Carries heat Site for many reactions Acts as solvent Source of energy Transport of nutrients and wastes Carries heat Site for many reactions Acts as solvent
A ________ molecule has covalent bonds between atoms, but the electrons within those bonds are unequally shared. polar - a polar molecule has an equal number of protons and electrons but more of the electrons are at one end of the molecule, making one end slightly negative while the other end of the molecule is slightly positive.
A water molecule with a region of a light positive charge and another region with a slight negative charge has what type of molecule classification? inert molecule polar molecule radioactive molecule polar molecule
Within an atom, the electrons constantly move around the _________ nucleus
The category of organic molecules in the body called ________ includes fatty acids, fats, phospholipids, steroids, and prostaglandins. Lipids - Lipids have vital functions in cells and are important constituents of cell membranes.
A __________ fatty acid is a lipid molecule in which each carbon atom in the chain is bound to as many hydrogen atoms as possible, and no double bonds are present. saturated
Fatty acid molecules with one or more double bonds between carbon atoms in the carbon chain are classified as _______ fatty acids. unsaturated Fatty acid with one double bond; monounsaturated Fatty acid with two or more double bond; polyunsaturated fatty acids
Hydrophilic means soluble in ______ water hydrophobic - not soluble in water
Enzymes are examples of what class of organic compound? carbohydrate lipid protein protein
All proteins contain nitrogen atoms and some have sulfur atoms. What are the “building blocks” that form proteins? fatty acids amino acids nucleic adds monosaccharides amino acids
Nucleotides are the subunits of _________. nucleic acids - Nucleic acids carry instructions in form of genes that control cell’s activities by encoding the amino acid sequences of proteins.
The very large and complex nucleic acids include atoms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus, which form the building blocks called __________ nucleotides
What does each nucleotide consist of? 5 carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), a phosphate group, one type of nitrogenous bases
Molecules of ________ store the information needed to manufacture protein molecules. DNA or RNA DNA
What are the four types of organic compounds important in cell structure and function? carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
The primary function of the class of organic compounds called _________ is to provide fuel for cellular functions. These molecules are stored as large polymers in liver and muscle cells. carbohydrates
Sugars are the simple forms of what type of organic molecule? carbohydrates
A carbohydrate formed from two single sugars bonded together is called a disaccharide
What type of chemical bond has this type of electron sharing: electrons are lost or gained; little to no sharing? ionic bond
What type of chemical bond has this type of electron sharing: electrons are share unequally? polar covalent bond
What type of chemical bond has this type of electron sharing: electrons are shared equally between the two atoms? non-polar covalent bond
An anion has more electrons than protons, which gives it a _______ charge. negative Note: Positively charges ions are called cations
Formed by the sharing of two electrons between two atoms describe what type of bond? covalent bond - a chemical bond between atoms that share electrons
What are two major characteristics of elements? composed of atoms make up all matter
A ________ is the smallest, most complete unit of an element that the unique chemical prompters of that element. atom
Within an atom, particles called __________ constantly move around the central nucleus. electrons
The way that atoms interact depends on their number of _________ neutrons protons electrons electrons
What are two important statements that describe chemical bonds A covalent, ionic or hydrogen bond (types of bonds) A force that attracts one atom to another, such as their opposite charges or the sharing of electrons
Atoms that become electrically charge due to the gain or loss of electrons are called ______ ions
What is the name of the bond (attraction) that binds a cation to an anion? Ionic bond
A pure chemical substance that consists of one type of atom with specific chemical properties is called ____________ element
Match with their structures? Phosphate ion, Calcium ions, Hydrogen ions, carbonate ions, chloride ions Phosphate ion - parts of ATP, DNA, RNA, and bone tissue Calcium ions - part of bone tissue; necessary for muscle contraction and blood clotting Hydrogen ions - determines pH of internal environment carbonate ions - part of bone tissue chloride ion
The general term for a substance is dissolved in a liquid such as water is a ________ solute
What inorganic molecule is a necessary reactant in the series of chemical reactions that release energy from nutrient molecules? oxygen
What is the source of carbon dioxide in the body? Metabolic reactions that release energy
The term ____________ is the chemical term for a single sugar unit. Monosaccharides - mono- means one and saccchar- means sugar
A peptide bond is a chemical bond between two _________. amino acids
By definition, a ________ is a liquid substance, such as water, that is capable of dissolving another substance within it. solvent
What are three examples of lipids? Fats, phospholipids, steroids, triglycerides (type of fats)
What are three forms of radiation? gamma - most penetrating form of atomic radiation alpha - move slowly and cannot easily penetrate matter beta - travels faster and more deeply penetrate matter
Carbohydrate molecules formed of many simple sugars are classified as ________ and ______. Complex carbohydrates polysaccharides
The electrons of an atom occupy one or more areas of space around the nucleus. These spaces are called electron _________. shells
The electrons in the outermost shell of an atom will ___________ and ____________. determine whether not it will bond to another atom determine its chemical behavior
The nucleic acid composed of one chain of nucleotides is __________. RNA
What is the classification of lips molecules that consist of connected rings of carbon atoms? Steroids
The medical condition in which the blood pH rises above the normal range of 7.35-7.45 is called __________. alkalosis
A molecule that does not include both carbon and hydrogen is classified as an __________ molecule. inorganic
What are three characteristics determine the direction that a reversible reaction such as (A + B <—> C ) occurs. Available energy, Concentration of products, Concentration of reactants
An atom has a total of 7 electron, with 2 electrons in its innermost electron shell and 5 electrons in the second shell. What are two true statements about this atom? The atom could form an ionic bond with another atom. The atom could form a covalent bond with another atom.
The building blocks for DNA and RNA molecules are called nucleotides
Chemicals called _________ are those that resist any change in the pH of a solution. buffers
True or False, the amino acid sequence in a polypeptide chain determine its three-dimensional conformation, and therefore its function. True - The function of a protein depends on its structure which is determined by its amino acid sequence.
The attraction of the positive hydrogen end of a polar molecule to the negative nitrogen or oxygen end of another polar molecule is called a ___________ bond hydrogen
Name the three groups that are part of the structure of an amino acid. All three are bound to a central carbon. Amino group, Carboxyl group, R group (side chain)
The building blocks for DNA and RNA molecules are called _______. nucleotides
Name the type of organic molecule that is hydrophobic. lipid
Matter is composed of elements, which are composed of __________. atoms
The primary type of chemical reaction involved in the digestion of a meal by the digestive system is a(n) __________. decomposition reaction
What type of chemical bond involves the sharing of a pair of electrons by two atoms in a molecule? covalent bond
What type of substance works to resist changes in the pH of a solution? buffer
Glucose and glycogen are examples of what group of organic compounds? carbohydrates
Gastric juice (fluid in the stomach) has a pH value of 2.0.  Therefore, this solution is __________. acidic
A cation is formed when an atom __________ an electron. loses
Bonds occurring between two polar molecules, such as between two water molecules, are ______ bonds. covalent
What does exocytosis use to move substance out of the cell? vesicles
What are the four phases of mitosis in order? prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
What prefix means “cell”? cyt-
What prefix means between? inter-
What are characteristics of ER (endoplasmic reticulum)? It functions in the synthesis of proteins It provides attachment for ribosomes (rough ER) It is composed of membranous sacs It functions in the synthesis of lipids
What are two main functions of the cell membrane? It is the site of signal transduction Is is a selectively permeable barrier
What is the function of mitochondria? Release energy from nutrients. The power house of the cell, ATP, cell energy.
What is the function of ribosomes? Production of proteins
What is the function of lysosomes? digest word cellular parts - garbage disposal - cells disposing of trash or itself is autophagy
What is the function of centrosome? important in cell division
What are the three major parts of a cell? nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane
Multiple hairlike, motile extensions called, _____ are attached to basal bodies; they wave, moving fluids across surfaces. cilia
What is the clear liquid in which organelles are suspend with the cytoplasm? cytosol
What is a stem cell? an undifferentiated cell that can divide
Simple diffusion is the movement of the molecules from areas of _______ concentration to areas of _______ concentration. high; low
What are three parts of cytoskeleton? microfilament microtubule intermediate filaments
Ions that use specific protein channels in the membrane use a process called _____ to move down their contraption gradient across the plasma membrane. facilitated diffusion
What are 3 major vesicle characteristics? contain substances that have just entered the cell are membranous sacs contain substance that have been produced by other organelles
What protein structures permit ions such as cilium, sodium, potassium, or chloride to cross the membrane? ion channels
True or False Peripheral proteins may work as enzymes or as part of signal transduction pathways. True - they can participate in chemical reactions and transit signals to inside of cells.
What membrane molecule consists of carbohydrates and proteins? Glycoprotein
The molecules within the cell membrane that function in the cell recognition are the _____. glycoproteins
What protein molecule help guide white blood cells to an area to injured tissue due to their role in guiding cell to cell interaction? CAM or cellular adhesion molecules
What are the supportive network of protein rods and tubules in the cytoplasm of a cell? Cytoskeleton
What are characteristics of chromatin? condenses into chromosomes during cell division is made of protein and DNA
What is the double membrane that maintains the integrity of the nucleus and contains prose that control the passage of the materials between the nucleus and the cytoplasm? nuclear envelope
What structures help ions which are hydrophilic cross the plasma membrane? ion channels integral proteins
Certain membrane proteins work as _______, which admit water molecules, while others work as _________, which admit small molecules or ions. pores; channels
What is a network of microtubules and microfilaments that form a structure of the cell? cytoskeleton
What is the material inside the nucleus called that contains information to guide synthesis of proteins and it condenses into chromosomes during cell division? chromatin
What is a type of compact or globular protein that spans the cell membrane? integral protein
What type of protein project from the cell surface and does not span the entire membrane? They associate with one side of the bilayer from an outside attachment rather than being embedded within it. peripheral proteins
What protein structures permit ions such as calcium, sodium, potassium, or chloride to cross the membrane? ion channels
What is the name of the organelle that is the powerhouse of the cell because it captures and transfers newly released energy into special chemical bonds of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). mitochondrion
What are two conditions necessary for diffusion of substance to occur across a membrane? membrane permeability a concentration gradient
What organelle is the shipping center, the organelle functions in packaging protein molecules for transport and secretion from the cell in to the extracellular environment? Golgi apparatus
What organelles are the site of protein synthesis? ribosome
What are the forces that drive active transport? ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Cellular energy
What is the passive transport mechanism in which small solutes are forced through a membrane by hydrostatic pressure? filtration
What is the name of a specialized structure inside of a cell that performs specific functions such as extracting energy from nutrients or building proteins? organelle
What are three functions of proteins in the cell membrane? adhere adjacent cells to each other receptors to bind to chemicals channels for ions to move through
What are components of the cell membrane? Phospholipids, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Cholesterol
The basic framework of the cell membrane is a bilayer of what molecules? phospholipid molecules
What functions as receptors, cell surface markers, transporters, channels, enzymes, and cellular adhesion molecules inside the cell membrane? proteins
What is the name of the cellular structure that includes phospholipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and cholesterol? cell membrane
True or False - Interphase is the resting stage and therefore no cellular activity takes place. False - it is an active period when the cell grows and maintains its routine functions and contributes to internal environment
What phase begins after cytokinesis and ends at prophase? interphase
What are the sub-phases of Interphase? S - phase (synthesis phase) G1 Phase - Growth G2 Phase - Gap
What event occurs during the S (synthesis) phase of interphase? DNA replication
What happens during interphase of G1 and G2 phases to cells? grow and synthesize organelles
What is the name of the 4 stage process the nucleus undergoes in somatic cell division? mitosis
What is the name of the form of cell division that occurs only in cells that give rise to sex cells? meiosis
What part of the cell divides in cytokinesis? cytoplasm
What is the difference between interphase and mitosis? Interphase is when DNA is duplicated and mitosis is when DNA is divided
What two events occur during cytokinesis? cytoplasm is divided between the cells cell membrane constricts around center of the cell
How many chromosomes are in each new cell after mitotic divisions? 2 sets of 23 chromosomes or 46 chromosomes
Cytokinesis is ________ and begins during anaphase the division of cytoplasm
What is the type of endocytosis in which a cell membrane engulfs solid particles from its surroundings? phagocytosis
What are two characteristics of receptor-mediated endocytosis? it requires receptors that combine with ligands it is a type of active transport mechanism
What is the name of active transport where a substance or particle crosses a cell, combining endocytosis and exocytosis to rapidly ferry the particle through or across a cell? transcytosis
What is the structure that buds off of one cell, then travels to and merges with another cell? exosome
Some cells makes substances and secrete them by the process of _______. exocytosis
The diffusion difference in concentration between two regions where a net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to a lower concentration. concentration gradient
Both simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion are ______ transport mechanisms that move molecules ________ a concentration gradient. passive; down
The difference between active and passive transport is that active mechanisms use ______. ATP
Active transport is a process that moves particles through a membrane from a region of ______ concentration to a region of _____ concentration. low; higher
What is name of the active transport mechanism in which large molecules or particles are conveyed by a vesicle into the cell? endocytosis
True or False: Both facilitated diffusion and simple diffusion require no carrier to move molecules across the membrane False - Facilitated diffusion requires a carrier while simple diffusion requires no carrier
What 3 factors increases rate of diffusion (rapid diffusion)? shorter distance, larger concentration gradient, higher temperature
What 3 factors decreases rate of diffusion? longer distance, smaller concentration gradient, lower temperature
What are two functions of the cell membrane? it is a selectively permeable barrier it is the site of signal transduction
What is the dense body of protein and RNA inside the nucleus, which produces ribosomes? nucleolus also known as little nucleus - is formed in specialized regions of certain chromosomes
What is the order that protein molecules proceed through several organelles between the time they are produced and when they are secreted from the cell? 1. Rough endoplasmic reticulum - where they are produced 2. Golgi apparatus - get packaged 3. Cell membrane - where it is secreted from the cell
What are the 3 main stages of the cell cycle? interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
What is cytosol? the liquid part of the cytoplasm
Every cell in the body has varying amounts of ________. components
What are two functions of smooth endoplasmic reticulum? metabolism of drugs, lipid synthesis
True or False: The cell membrane is an actively functioning part of the cell. It is the site of important metabolic reactions and it also enable communication and interaction with other cells. True
Which of the following is the same for every cell within a human body? genome
What term describes the series of events that a cell undergoes from the time it forms until the time it divides? the cell cycle
True or False All cells in the body divide at the same rate. false
What are the 3 major parts of a cell? nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane
Match structures with function Phosphate heads - Fatty acid tails - Membrane proteins - Cholesterol - Glycoproteins - hydrophilic surfaces of membrane, hydrophobic interior of membrane, receptors; transporters, maintains rigidity, cell I.D. Phosphate heads - hydrophilic surfaces of membrane Fatty acid tails - hydrophobic interior of membrane Membrane proteins - receptors; transporters Cholesterol - maintains rigidity Glycoproteins - cell identification
Match the function with the organelle Composed of protein and a lipid bilayer Membranous sacs with interior partitions Group of flattened, membranous sacs Particles composed of protein and RNA molecules Non-membranous structure composed of tw Composed of protein and a lipid bilayer - cell membrane Membranous sacs with interior partitions - lysosome Group of flattened, membranous sacs - Golgi apparatus Particles composed of protein and RNA molecules - chromatin Non-membranous structure c
Cytokinesis is the process by which the __________ of a cell divides. Cytoplasm
True or False. Some organelles move within the cell as part of their function. true
What is the site of ribosome production? rough endoplasmic reticulum
What of the following organelles play a role in the distribution of chromosomes during cell division? Peroxisomes
Specialized structures found in the cytoplasm of the cell are called __________. organelles
Programmed cell death is called __________. Apoptosis
What type of cell retains the ability to divide repeatedly into any type of cell, thus allowing the body to repair and grow? Stem cell
The process of specialization by a cell is called __________. differentiation
What are the meanings of the word roots an- and de-? an- means without de- means undoing
What suffix indicates that the named molecule is an enzyme? -ase
What are the name of proteins that control the rates of chemical reactions? enzymes
What is considered a catalyst because it accelerates chemical reactions? enzyme
Two items that describe an enzymes protein, catalyst
What acts only on a specific type of molecule? enzyme
What is the name of the specific molecule any one enzyme can act on? substrate
What is the name of the part of an enzyme molecule that combines with its substrate? active site
True or False. If the concentration of reactants increases will result in an increase in the rate of the chemical reaction. True
What is a series of metabolic reactions called that are enzyme-catalyzed reaction that occur in a specific sequence? metabolic pathways
True or False. Reaction rates along a metabolic pathway are often regulated by positive feedback: as product accumulates, it will inhibit the activity of enzymes early in the pathway, slowing the reaction rate. False. What is described is negative feedback not positive.
What are 3 differences between DNA and RNA? DNA uses thymine; RNA uses uracil, DNA is double-stranded; RNA is single-stranded, DNA uses deoxyribose; RNA uses ribose
What are the 4 types of DNA bases and their complementary base pairs? A (adenine), T (thymine), C (cytosine), or G (guanine). A and G are purines with 2 organic ring structures. T and C are pyrimidines with one organic ring structure. A binds w/ T. G binds w/ C.
What type of nucleic acid is in the form of a double helix? DNA
What is the name of DNA in its chromatin configuration is wound around clusters of globular proteins? histones
What is the term for DNA that is in its loose thread-like configuration wrapped around histone proteins? chromatin
What process allows newly formed cell to have the same genetic information (DNA) as the original cell? DNA replication
Other than the sex/germ cells, how many copies of the genome do other body cells contain? 2 copies in two sets of 23 chromosomes.
What is the production of copies of DNA that occurs during interphase of the cell cycle is called DNA? DNA replication
What step begins the process of DNA replication? Hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases break
What enzyme catalyzes base pairing during DNA replication from the linking of complementary nucleotides? DNA polymerase
What is produced by the process of DNA replication? Two complete DNA molecules; each with one old strand and one new strand
What is the process of copying the information encoded in DNA to produce RNA? transcription
What four nitrogenous bases are found in RNA? adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine nucleotides. Thymine nucleotides are found in DNA only
What is the process of synthesizing mRNA called? Transcription
What molecules carriers genetic instructions from the nucleus to the ribosome for translation? mRNA
In DNA, the genetic information is encoded within _____ DNA strands. only one
True or False: Genetic information is encoded in both of the DNA strands of each chromosome. False - Only one strand of DNA has the genetic info. The other strand is complementary but does not code for proteins.
What enzyme builds mRNA during the process of transcription, forming the bonds between the nucleotides as they are assembled? RNA polymerase
What are three characteristics of a codon? a three base sequence of mRNA, complementary to an anticodon, code for an amino acid or as a “stop” signal
In a gene, how many series of nucleotide bases specify each amino acid that will be built into a protein? 3, three
To carry out protein synthesis, what happens at a ribosome with mRNA to change from the language of nucleic acts to the language of amino acids? translation
What is the name of the phase of protein synthesis in which the amino acids are assembled into a polypeptide chain? translation
Lengths of mRNA that code for segments of a protein are called what? What segments that do not code for protein and are spliced out prior to translation called? exons; introns
What part of the cell does process protein synthesis occur in? cytoplasm
What type of RNA delivers amino acids to the ribosomes during the translation phase of the protein synthesis? tRNA (transfer)
In what part of the cell is tRNA synthesized/produced? nucleus
What is transported by transfer RNA (tRNA)? amino acids
At the ends of each tRNA there is a sequence of three nucleotides known as the ______; this sequence is complementary to the bases on mRNA. anticodon
What is the consequence of having only 20 amino acids when’re there are 64 possible codons? Some amino acids are associated with more than one codon.
What is the main characteristic of mRNA codons that do not match up with a corresponding tRNA? their function is to signal the end of translation
What is the first initiation codon on any mRNA, regardless of the gene being transcribed, that specifies the amino acid methionine and the start of the encoded protein? A-U-G
True or False. mRNA binds an amino acid. False. RNA does not bind amino acids.
What are the steps of translation? 1. Ribosome binds mRNA 2. tRNA anticodon binds to complement mRNA codon 3. New amino acid is linked to the growing peptide chain link 4. tRNA released from ribosome, open to pick up another amino acid.
What organelle is composed of rRNA and proteins? ribosome
What occurs during the process of translation? Assembly of mRNA within nucleus or Assembly of polypeptide chain Assembly of polypeptide chain
What sequence of 3 nucleotides is on one end of each tRNA? Hint: The sequence is complementary to the bases on mRNA. anticodon
Each codon of mRNA is complementary to the anticodon of what molecule? tRNA
True or False. Several ribosomes can work along the same mRNA molecule, building multiple copies of the protein. True. Multiple copies of the protein can be built from one mRNA if multiple ribosomes work along it.
What is a polyribosome? A group of many ribosomes associated with a single mRNA strand a different point along along the strand, simultaneously synthesizing the same protein.The protein can be in different stages of formation along the strand.
What protein functions by assisting newly formed polypeptide chains to fold into their unique shapes? chaperones
What proteins activate genes that are needed to synthesize proteins needed by a cell? transcription factors
What is a 3 base sequence in mRNA called? a codon
What proteins move aside histones, exposing the starting point for genes on DNA? transcription factors
What 3 identifiers that describe glycogen? stored most in liver and muscle cells, an energy storage molecule, a bracing chain of glucose molecules
What molecule is produced after a meal using excess glucose? The same molecule will break down later when blood glucose levels drop. glycogen
What molecules can excess glucose be converted to be later stored in adipose tissue? lipid molecules
What three classes of organic molecules can be metabolized to produce ATP? Protein, Lipid, Carbohydrate
When blood ________ levels are low, glycogen is broken down and used. glucose
In order, what are three pathway components of cellular respiration? Glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, Electron Transport Chain
What molecules are required for cellular respiration? glucose and oxygen
What are 3 end products of cellular respiration? water, carbon dioxide, and energy as ATP
What are 3 characteristics aerobic reactions of cellular respiration? Reactions occur in the mitochondria, reactions are oxygen-dependent, a product is ATP
What two characteristics of anaerobic respiration? Occurs in the cytoplasm, does not require oxygen
How many ATP molecules are produced after complete oxidation of one glucose molecule? 30 - 32
What is the meaning of the term glycolysis? Breaking down glucose
The product, pyruvic acid, is during what process of cellular respiration? glycolysis
What process within the cellular respiration pathway is anaerobic? glycolysis
Where does the reactions of glycolysis happen? in the cytosol (cytoplasm)
What compound is the hydrogen carrier-molecule that is utilized during the process of cellar respiration? NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
During cellular respiration, NADH carries hydrogen and electrons to what located in the mitochondria of the cell? electron transport chain
Which cellular respiration process yields two net ATP molecules? Glycolysis - Glycolysis produces GROSS amount of 4 ATP, but there is an investment needed go 2 ATP to create the reaction thus the NET is 2 ATP.
What type of acid is produced under anaerobic conditions when NADH passes its electrons to pyruvic and, converting it to what? lactic acid
During the anaerobic phase of the breakdown of glucose, pyruvic acid is converted to ________ in the absence of oxygen? lactic acid
Lactic acid accumulates and in turn inhibits the process of glycolysis. Lactic acid build up happens under what conditions? anaerobic conditions
If one strand of DNA had a base sequence of A-T-T-G-C-A, what base order would be found on the complementary strand of DNA? T A A C G T
At the end of the electron transport chain, the electrons and hydrogen combine with __________, the final electron acceptor. oxygen - to form water
When catalyzing a metabolic reaction, the role of an enzyme is to reduce the __________. activation energy
Three metabolic pathways are involved in the breakdown of glucose to CO2, H2O, and ATP.  Of the three, which one occurs in the cytoplasm? glycolysis
ATP molecules provide energy for cellular activities by __________. releasing the terminal phosphate group and the energy associated with the bond
Name the cell cycle phase during which DNA replication occurs. Interphase
What are the end products of the complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose? 6CO2, 6H2O, 32 ATP
What is the process of synthesizing mRNA called? transcription
The molecule called __________ enters the citric acid cycle during the aerobic phase of cellular respiration. acetyl CoA
An enzyme, which accelerates a chemical reaction, is considered a(n) __________. catalyst
For some metabolic pathways, the product of the pathway inhibits the functioning of the first enzyme of the same pathway.  This type of regulation is an example of __________. negative feedback
What determines the order of amino acids in a protein? Order of nucleotide bases within a gene
Match DNA and RNA nucleotides to complimentary bases Cytosine to ______ Adenine in DNA to _______ Adenine in RNA to _______ In order: guanine, thymine, uracil
The "genetic code" determines the types of proteins made by a cell.  The term "genetic code" refers to ___________. three-base sequences in DNA that code for a particular amino acid
DNA is a double helix, with a structure much like a twisted ladder.  What forms the "rungs" of the ladder? The paired Nitrogenous bases
What type of intercellular junction joins cells in sheet-like layers by fusing adjacent cells together? tight junctions
What type of cartilage provides support and shock absorption? fibrocartilage
In nervous tissue, the cell type that carries out the main function of the tissue is the __________. neuron
Match the descriptions with the epithelial cell shapes Thin flattened cells Cube like cells Elongated cells squamous cuboidal columnar
A single cell, or a structure consisting of a group of cells, that makes and secretes a substance is called a(n) __________. gland
What type of muscle tissue is found in the wall of blood vessels? smooth muscle
Match function with the connective tissue cell or fiber type Phagocytosis Secretes heparin and histamine Produces fibers Holds structures together with great tensile strength Lends delicate support macrophages mast cells fibroblasts collagenous fibers reticular fibers
Skin is exposed to friction and has a protective function.  What type of epithelial tissue is best suited to form the outer layer of the skin? Stratified squamous epithelium
Which type of tissue covers the body surface and lines organs and cavities? Connective tissue
What type of exocrine gland has small portions of its epithelial cells as its secretion? Apocrine
Connective tissue is notably different from epithelial tissue. Which statement describes a major difference between these tissue types There is more space between cells in connective tissue.
Burns classified as __________ burns heal quickly with no scarring. superficial partial thickness
Name the epidermal layer that is found in thick skin, but is absent from thin skin. Stratum lucidum
Heat (molecular vibration) is transmitted from one substance directly to another conduction
Use of body heat to convert liquid water in sweat to gaseous water vapor evaporation
Heat is emitted in waves (rays) from warmer surfaces to cooler surroundings radiation
Heat is carried away by movement of air over surface convection
Our skin (thickens or thins), as we age. thins
What variation in melanin accounts for the differences in skin tone between individuals? Differences in amount of melanin produced
What type of burn involves the destruction of some of the epidermis and some of the underlying dermis? deep partial thickness (2nd degree burn)
How do apocrine glands differ from other skin glands? Apocrine glands secrete in response to emotional stimuli.
Nails consist of __________. keratinized epithelial cells
Merocrine (eccrine) sweat glands are located __________ and function to __________. almost everywhere in the body; cool the skin
Vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the dermis of the skin is a response to a(n) __________ in body temperature. increase
Anchoring the epidermis to the superficial dermis is a thin layer called the __________. basement membrane
The __________ are the bundles of smooth muscle found within the dermis, attached to hair follicles. arrector pili muscle
What type of dead cells make up a hair? Epithelial cells
What is keratinization and where does it occur? Hardening of cells; occurs in epidermis
Within the epidermis, cell division and growth occurs in the stratum __________. basale
Created by: dgill21



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