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Chapter 17 A&P

Special Senses

outer ear is? pinna, auditory canal, eardrum
Middle ear is? malleus, incus, and stapes to the oval window
Inner ear is? scalas vestibuli and tympani to the cochlear duct Stimulation of the organ of CortiGeneration of impulses in the cochlear nerve
chemical senses are? gustation (taste) and olfaction (smell)
chemoreceptors respond to chemicals in aqueous solution: taste is? to substances dissolved in saliva
chemoreceptors respond to chemicals in aqueous solution: Smell is? to substances dissolved in fluids of the nasal membranes.
Olfactory receptors convey what? nerve impulses to olfactory nerves, olfactory bulbs, olfactory tracts, and the cerebral cortex and limbic system.
olfactory receptors are? Olfactory receptor cells are bipolar neurons with radiating olfactory ciliaOlfactory receptors are surrounded and cushioned by supporting cells
basal cells lie at? the base of the epithelium
the olfactory gland provides? a muscus environ. to trap molecules for the olfactory receptors.
olfactory receptors respond to? several different odor-causing chemicals.
olfactory receptors when bound to ligand these proteins initiate ? a G protein mechanism which uses cAMP as a second messenger.
cAMP opens what channels, and cuses what? opens Na+ and Ca2+ channels, causing depolarization of the receptor membrane that then triggers an action potential
taste buds are found where? in the papillae of the tongue mucosa
papillae comes in three types: which are? filiform, fungiform and circumvallate
Fungiform and circumvallate papillae contains? taste buds.
taste modalities are? sweet, salt, sour, bitter, and umami
Umami is? evoked by monosodium glutamate.
monosodium glutamate is? savory type of sensation elicited by the amino acid glutamate.
The epithelial chemosensory receptor cells synaptically what? excited primary neurons.
Each taste bud consists of three major cell types which are? supporting cells, basal cells, and gustatory cells.
supporting cells are? insulate the receptor
basal cells are? dynamic stem cells
gustatory cells are? taste cells.
circumvillae papillae also called what? vallate papillae.
cranial nerves VII, IX, and X carry impulses from? taste buds to the solitary nucleus of the medulla.
these impulses then travel to the thalamus and from there fibers branch to the? Gustatory cortex (taste)Hypothalamus and limbic system (appreciate of the taste)
olfactory receptors calls synapse with cells in the solitary nucleus (mitral cells) which in turn send fibers to? the olfactory cortexthe hypothalamus, amygdala, and limbic system.
the lens separates the internal eye into what type of segments? aneterior and posterior.
The posterior segment is filled with? a clear gel called vitreous humor.
Vitreous humor is? Transmits lightSupports the posterior surface of the lens Holds the neural retina firmly against the pigmented layerContributes to intraocular pressure
the eye is composed of two chambers which are? anterior and posterior.
the chambers of the eye: anterior chamber is? between the cornea and iris.
chambers of the eye: posterior is? between the iris and lens.
aqueous humor is? a plasma like fluid that fills the anterior segment.
aqueous humors function is? Produced by the Ciliary processDrains via the canal of Schlemm (the Scleral venous sinus)Supports, nourishes, and removes wastes
the eye is constructed of three layers what are these layers? Fibrous Tunic (outer layer)Vascular Tunic (middle layer)Nervous Tunic (inner layer
lens are? A biconvex, transparent, flexible, avascular structure
the lens allows and is composed of? Allows precise focusing of light onto the retinaIs composed of epithelium and lens fibers
Lens epithelium is? anterior cells that differentiate into the lens fibers.
lens fibers are? cells filled with the transparent protein cyrstallin.
with age the lens becomes less how? becomes more compact and dense and loses its elasticity.
focusing is? Pathway of light entering the eye: cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor, and the neural layer of the retina to the photoreceptors
light is refracted how? at the cornea, entering the lens, and leaving the lens.
the lens curvature and shape allows for? fine focusing of an image.
what are zonular fibers? The alterations of the shape of the lens are accomplished by relieving or allowing the tension exerted on the lens
relaxation of the ciliary muscles allows the zonular fibers to pull on the? lens, making the lens more flat for focusing far objects.
contraction of ciliary muscles relieves the tension of the zonular fibers and causes? the lens to become more round for accomodation of the close objects.
when circular muscles of the iris contract the pupilliary diameter? this is done how? decreases;this is done by parasympathetic innnervation via cranial verve 3.
Contraction of the radially oriented muscles of the iris enlarge the? this is done how? pupil;this is done through the sympathetic superior cervical ganglion, no cranial nerves involved.
when light passes from one transparent medium to another its what changes? speed and refracts (bends)
Light passing through a convex lens the light is bent because? is bent so that the rays converge to a focal point.
when a convex lens forms an imagine by? the image is upside down and reverse right to left.
Light from a distance needs? little adjustment for proper focusing.
Far Point of vision is? the distance beyond which the lens does not need to change shape to focus.
close vision requires: accomodation which is? changing the lens shape by ciliary muscles to increase refractory power.
close vision requires: constriction which is? the pupillary reflex constricts the pupils to prevent divergent light rays from entering the eye.
Close vision requires: convergence which is? medial rotation of the eyeballs toward the object being viewed.
emmetropic eye is? normal eye with light focused properly
myopic eye which is ? near sighted- the focal point is in front of the retina- corrected with concave lens.
Hyperopic eye which is? farsighted- the focal point is behind the retina. corrected with convex lens.
pigmented layer is? the outer layer that absorbs light and prevents its scattering.
neural layer contains? Epithelial Cell Photoreceptors that transduce light energyBipolar cells and Ganglion cells that form the optic nerve Amacrine and horizontal cells
ganlion cell axons are? run along the inner surface of the retinaleave the eye as the optic nerve.
the optic disc is? is the site where the optic nerve leaves the eye. Lacks photoreceptors (the blind spot)
Rods and cones: the epithelia photon detectors: what are the rods? respond to dim ligthare used for peripheral vision
Rods and cones: the epithelia photon detectors: what are cones? respond to bright lighthave high acuity color visionare concentrated in the fovea centralis.
photopigments are? undergo structural changes upon light absorption.
retinal is? the light absorbing part of all visual photopigments.
photopigments are? involved in vision contain a glycoprotein called opsin, and dervative of vitamin A called retinal.
thre are four different opsins are? A cone contains one of three different kinds of photopigments so there are three types of cones. permit the absorption of 3 different wavelengths (colors) of lightRods contain a single type of photopigment (rhodopsin)
axons of the retinal ganglion cells form? the optic nerve
medial fibers fo the optic nerve decussate at the? optic chiasm
Most fibers of the optic tracts continue to the? lateral geniculate body of the thalamus.
Other optic tract fibers end in? superior colliculi (initiating visual reflexes) and pretectal nuclei (involved with pupillary reflexes)
optic radiations travel from and to? from the thalamus and to the visual cortex.
what is achieved by both eyes? viewing the same image from slightly different angles.
3-D vision results from? cortical fusion of the slightly different images.
what happens when only using one eye. depth perception is lost and the observer must rely on learned clues to determine depth.
what percent of all sensory receptors are in the eye? 70%
most of the eye is protected by? a cushion of fat and the bony orbit
accessory structures of the eye are? eyebrows, eyelids, conjunctiva, lacrimal apparatus, and extrinsic eye muscles.
the function of the eye brow is? shading the eyepreventing perspiration from reaching the eye.
orbicularis muscle is? depresses the eyebrows
corrugator muscles are? move the eyebrow medially.
there are 6 muscles the insert on the exterior surface of the eye ball...what are they? 4 rectus muscles -- superior, inferior, lateral and medial2 oblique muscles -- inferior and superior
eyelids or palpebrae is? protect & lubricateepidermis, dermis, CT, orbicularis oculi m., tarsal plate, tarsal glands & conjunctiva
tarsal glands are? Provide oily secretions
conjunctiva is? palperbral and bulbarstops at corneal edge.
how much of tears are produced each day? 1 ml
what is conjunctiva? a thin transparent mucous membrane that line the inner aspect of the eyelids and is reflected onto the anterior surface of the eyeball.
what is the function of the conjunctiva? Lines the eyelids as the palpebral conjunctivaCovers the whites of the eyes as the ocular conjunctivaLubricates and protects the eye
What is the action and controlling cranial nerve of the lateral rectus? moves eye laterally; VI abducens
What is the action and controlling cranial nerve of medial rectus/ moves eye mediallyIII oculomotor
What is the action and controlling cranial nerve of superior rectus? Elevates eyeIII oculomotor
What is the action and controlling cranial nerve of inferior rectus? Depresses eyeIII oculomotor
What is the action and controlling cranial nerve of Inferior oblique? Elevates eye and turns it laterallyIII oculomotor
What is the action and controlling cranial nerve of superior Oblique? depresses eye and turns it laterallyIV trochlear
frequency is? the number of waves that pass a given point in a given time.
Pitch is? perception of different frequencies
Amplitude is? intensity of a sound measured in decibels
Loundness is? subjective iinterpretation of sound intensity.
the tympanic cavity contains three small bones...what are the bones and what do they do? malleus, incus, and stapesTransmit vibratory motion of the eardrum to the oval window.dampened by the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles.
stapedius m. inserts onto stapes does what? prevents very large vibrations of stapes from loud noises.
Tensor tympani attaches to malleus does what? limits movementsof malleus and stiffens eardrum to prevent damage.
the bony labyrinth is? Tortuous channels worming its way through the temporal boneContains the vestibule, the cochlea, and the semicircular canalsFilled with perilymph which is similar to extracellular fluid (a filtrate of spinal fluid)
the membranous labyrinth is? Series of membranous sacs within the bony labyrinthFilled with a potassium-rich fluid similar to intercellular fluid
the vestibule is? The central egg-shaped cavity of the bony labyrinthSuspended in its perilymph are two sacs: The saccule extends into the cochleaThe utricle extends into the semicircular canals
the sacs: utricel and Saccule are? House equilibrium receptors called maculaeRespond to gravity and changes in the position of the head
vestibulocochlear Nerve (CN VIII): the vestibular branch of the CN VIII consists of 3 parts, which they are? ampullary, utricular, and saccular nerves
cochlear branch has? spiral ganglion in bony modiolus
the cochlea, a spiral, conical bony chamber does waht? Extends from the anterior vestibuleContains the cochlear ductThe cochlear duct contains the organ of Corti, where the hearing receptors reside
the organ of corti is composed of three separate chambers: they consist of ? Scala vestibuli, the scala tympani which are continuous via the helicotrema, and the Scala media
ear drum vibrations: what is the slow vibration mean? response to low-pitched sounds
Eardrum vibrations: Rapid vibrations is? response to high-pitched sounds.
Ossicles vibrate since? malleus is attached to the eardrum.
Stapes pushes on oval window producing? fluid pressure waves in scala vestibuli and tympani
Pressure fluctuation inside cochlear duct move the? hair cells against the tectorial membrane
microvilli are? bent producing receptor potentials.
The scalas tympani and vestibuli are continuous with the subarachnoid space of the brain Are filled with perilymph similar to cerebral spinal fluid (extracellular fluid); high in Na + and low in K+ (similar to extracellular fluid)Scala vestibuli and Scala tympani are continuous with each other via the helicotrema (as mentioned)
scala media is? with endolymph which is different than the perilymph. The endolymph is similar to intracellular fluid; high in K+ and low in Na+ ; this fluid is produced by the Stria vascularis
inner hair cells are responsible for? sounds transductions and the outer hair cells modulate or fintune the sound perceived.
Sound waves of low frequency (inaudible): are? Travel around the helicotrema Do not excite hair cells
Audible sound waves: are? Audible sound waves:Penetrate through the oval window from vibrations of the StapesVibrate the basilar membraneExcite specific hair cells according to frequency of the sound
Conduction deafness are? Conduction deafness – something hampers sound conduction to the fluids of the inner ear (e.g., impacted earwax, perforated eardrum, osteosclerosis of the ossicles)
Sensorineural deafness – are? Sensorineural deafness – results from damage to the neural structures at any point from the cochlear hair cells to the auditory cortical cells
Tinnitus – are? Tinnitus – ringing or clicking sound in the ears in the absence of auditory stimuli
Meniere’s syndrome –is? Meniere’s syndrome – labyrinth disorder that affects the cochlea and the semicircular canals, causing vertigo, nausea, and vomiting
Vestibular apparatus – is? and what does it do? Vestibular apparatus – equilibrium receptors in the semicircular canals and vestibuleMaintains our orientation and balance in space and timeVestibular receptors monitor static equilibriumSemicircular canal receptors monitor dynamic equilibrium
maculae are? the sensory receptors for static equilibrium It contains supporting cells and hair cells Each hair cell has stereocilia and kinocilium embedded in the otolithic membrane
Otolithic membrane – is? jellylike mass studded with tiny CaCO3 stones called otoliths
utricular hairs respond? to horizontal movement
Saccular hairs respond to? vertical movement
Otolithic movement in the direction of the kinocilia is? Depolarizes vestibular nerve fibersIncreases the number of action potentials generated
Movement in the opposite direction is? Hyperpolarizes vestibular nerve fibersReduces the rate of impulse propagation
cell types in the macula region are? hair cells with stereocilia (microvilli) & one cilia (kinocilium)supporting cells that secrete gelatinous layer
The three semicircular ducts, along with the saccule and utricle maintain dynamic equilibrium ARE? anterior, posterior & horizontal ducts detect different movements (combined 3-D sensitivity)
cristae is? the semicircular ducts are the primary sensse organs of dynamic equilibrium
Created by: victoriad87



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