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A&P Unit 2

Basic Chemistry

Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass
Energy The ability to do work
Potential energy Stored energy
Kinetic Energy Energy of motion
Types of energy Chemical, Electrical, Mechanical, Radiant, Thermal
Chemical Stored in bonds
Electricsal Flow of electrons
Mechanical Movement of parts
Radiant Waves of particles
Termal Heat
Elements Fundamental units of matter
Atoms Building blocks of elements
Nucleus Protons and Neutrons
Outside of Nucleus Electrons
Atomic number Equal to the number of protons that the atoms contain
Atomic mass number Sum of the proton and neutrons
Isotopes Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons
Atomic Weight Close to mass number of most abundant isotope
Molecule Two or more like atoms combined chemically
Compound Two or more different atoms combined chemically
Anabolic Synthesis reactions
Catabolic Decomposition reactions
Valence Shell Bonding involves interactions between electrons in the outer shell
Inert Elements Have complete valence shells and are stable
Reactive Elements Valence shells are not full and are unstable. Normally tend to gain, lose, or share electrons.
Ionic Bonds Form when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another
Ions Charged particles
Covalent bond Atoms become stable through shared electrons
Non-Polar Electrically neutral as a molecule
Polar Have a positive and negative side
Hydrogen Bonds Weak chemical bonds where hydrogen is attracted to negative portion of polar molecule
Exchange reaction Switch is made between molecule parts and different molecules are made
Inorganic compounds Lack carbon and tend to be simpler compounds
Neutralization reaction Acids and bases react to form water and a salt
pH Measures relative concentration of hydrogen ions
Organic compounds Contains carbon and are mostly covalently bonded
Carbohydrates Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in roughly a 1:2:1 ratio and includes sugars and starches. Monosaccharides equals simple sugars.
Disaccharides Two simple sugars joined by dehydration synthesis - removal of water to form a bond
Decomposed by hydrolysis breaking of bonds by adding water back in
Polysaccharides long branching chains of linked simple sugars
Strach and Cellulose Plant polysaccharides and cellulose is indigestible
Glycogen Animal polysaccharide and stored in muscle and liver
Lipids Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and most are insoluble in water.
Saturated All single bonds and are solid at room temperature.
Unsaturated Some double bonds and are liquid at room temperature
Protein Made of 20 different amino acids and contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
Enzymes acts as biological catalysts and increase the rate of chemical reactions
Substrate the substance on which an enzyme is acting
Active site the area on the enzyme to which the substrate binds
Deanture when an enzyme unfolds and is rendered nonfunctional
Nucleic Acids Composed of nucleotides such as sugar, phosphate, and nucleotide bases
Nucleotide Bases A = Adenine G = Guanine C = Cytosine T = Thymine (only in DNA) U = Uracil (only in RNA). A bonds to T (U), G to C
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Single strand, has U instead of T, has ribose sugar and involved in the manufacturing of proteins such as transcription, translation, and ribosomes
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) Contains deoxyribose sugar, T instead of U, it is the "Blueprint" of life.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Chemical energy used by all cells and energy is released by breaking high energy phosphate bond
Created by: ealvarado2610



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