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History 1304

Final Exam

QuestionAnswerAnswer
Dialectic of recognition Alexandre Kojeve in his Introduction to the Reading of Hegel .” It says that the deepest human desire is the desire to have one’s self-consciousness as agency recognized.” We need another subject to recognize ourselves without ourselves being forced to recognize the other. This is the drama of social recognition.
Disenchantment Max Weber, Science as a Vocation He believes this disenchantment is a result of intellectualization and rationalization.
Ethic of responsibility/ethic of ultimate ends Max Weber in his “Politics as Vocation.” Despite the seeming contradiction, Weber believes a good politician should consider both. He writes, “[A]n ethic of ultimate ends and an ethic of responsibility are not absolute contrasts but rather supplements...
Repressive Hypothesis Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality (Volume 1), 1976 Foucault DISAGREES with the repressive hypothesis. To Foucault, discourse on sex has only intensified and proliferated since the 18th century. The 18th century saw an “explosion of discourse” on sexuality (ex: psychoanalysis).
The Overman Friedrich Nietzsche, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, 1885 is contrasted directly with Christianity. While Christianities goals are of other-worldliness, the Overman is the meaning of the earth.
The ontological difference (i.e. ontological/ontic) Martin Heidegger, Being and Time, 1927 Heidegger uses the term ontic when describing characteristics of a particular thing and the “plain facts” of its existence. For example: atoms are “ontic.” Atoms can be studied (in physics) in depth without raising more general ontological questions.
Apolline/Dionysiac Friedrich Nietzsche, The Birth of Tragedy, 1872 The Apollonian and Dionysian is a philosophical dichotomy based on certain figures in ancient Greek mythology (Apollo and Dionysus). Nietzsche approached the concept from a aesthetic and philosophical point of view.
Destruktion/Deconstruction- Heidegger, Being and Time, 1927 the task of destroying ontological concepts, in other words also including, ordinary everyday meanings of words like time, history, being, theory, death, mind, body, matter, logic etc
Existence precedes essence: Sartre, Existentialism is a Humanism, 1945 Existential idea that prior to one’s conscious creation of self-hood, he exists.
Humanism Sartre, Beauvoir, Camus—Existentialism is Humanism, 1945 In creating ourselves, we also construct a mandate for what we want the rest of the world to be. In fashioning myself I fashion man. (Kantian categorical imperative)
“Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”: Freud, Ego & Id, 1923 the development of an organism (ontogeny) expresses all the intermediate forms of its ancestors throughout evolution (phylogeny). Freud adopted this idea and applied to psychoanalysis
Positivism Weber, The Vocations, 1918 the only authentic knowledge is that which is based on actual sense experience-EMPIRCISM!! Weber inverts this in his sociology by purporting “ideal types” and generalizable social ideas in society.
The “oceanic” Freud, Civilization and its Discontents 1930 the feeling of belonging and some greater essence out there. Hearkens to the womb in Freud’s earlier psychology; total comfort and meaning in the universe etc.
“The whole is the false” Lukacs part of critical theory. Implies the danger of striving for a totality, because that promotes the lie of full social harmony – which was the very idea promoted by capitalism when it tried to defuse revolutionary energy.
“Bent is the path of eternity” Friedrich Nietzsche “The Convalescent” in Thus Spake Zarathustra Manifestation of anti-foundationalism through perspectivalism –the world itself is in constant motion, and bent is the path of eternity,
Cyclops’ Eye Friedrich Nietzsche The Birth of Tragedy 1872 the way in which Socrates viewed tragedy – that is, without depth perception. His disengaged theoretical perception of tragedy forced structure onto tragedy that destroyed exactly what made it pure art:
Pantextualism Derrida representatitive of Derrida’s critique of logocentrism, his ides that hope of overthrowing metaphysical stability is merely a dream and can never be truly achieved
Episteme Foucault, The Order of Things (Les mots et les choses), 1966 It is he body of ideas that determine the knowledge that is intellectually certain at any particular time, or the accepted mode of acquiring and arranging knowledge in a given period.
Parole/Langue Saussure, Course in Linguistics, published posthumously in 1915 “Langue” refers to the abstract that is internalized by a given speech community “parole” is the individual act of speech Transvaluation of values
Authenticity Heidegger- Being and Time says that normally we are very artificial with regards to other people, that we follow social norms instead of focusing on how we should be. If we were more accepting of our "throwness", less obsessed with finding a grounding to our lives—more authentic.
Presence Derrida- Structure, Sign and Play claim is that an obsession with presence has led to a preference for speech to writing in philosophy/anthropology. Writing is by nature ambiguous, better allows for a deconstructive play between signs.
Totemism Claude Levi-Struass Totemism relates to his “general system of reference allowing the detection of homologies between themes, whose elaborate forms do not at first seem related in any way.”
Created by: Wisnodew