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Unit 1 CFU Questions

Anatomy Study of living things
Physiology Study of how living things work
Imaginary anatomical lines Sagittal plane, transverse plane, frontal plane
Sagittal plane Divides the body into left and right
Transverse plane Divides the body into top and bottom
Frontal plane Divides the body into front and back
Integumentary system Skin, hair, nails
Skeletal system Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, heart
Digestive system Esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver
Respiratory system Lungs, larynx, pharynx, trachea, nasal passages
Cardiovascular system Heart and blood vessels
Lymphatic system Lymphatic vessels and nodes
Urinary system Kidneys, bladder
Nervous system Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors
Endocrine system Thyroid glands, pituitary glands, adrenal glands, pancreas
Reproductive system (male) Testes, scrotum, penis
Reproductive system (female) Ovaries, uterus, vagina
4 types of tissues Epithelial, connective, muscular, neural
Cavities of the body Cranial, spinal, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic
A group of cells Tissue
Which body system maintains the boundaries of the body? Integumentary system
Which body system detects and responds to internal and external stimuli and activated responses in the appropriate muscle or gland? Nervous system
Negative feedback Responds to normal malfunctions in the body (regulates temperature, breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, etc)
Positive feedback Responds to crisis situations (birth, blood clotting, fever, etc)
Homeostasis Balances out variables (body temperature, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, etc) in the body
Metabolism Chemical reactions occurring in the body’s cells
Anabolism - add up Energy + small molecules —> larger molecules, proteins and lipids
Catabolism - cuts down Large molecule —> energy + small molecules, carbohydrates
Anabolism makes Glucose —> glycogen, ATP (cellular energy), enzymes, and membranes
Catabolism cuts down Glycogen —> starch, proteins —> amino acids
Acids More hydrogen ions in solutions, pH is less than 7
Bases (alkaline) More hydroxide ions in solutions, pH is greater than 7
Ions Form when atoms gain or loss electrons
Positive ions Form when electrons are lost
Negative ions Form when electrons are gained
Common ions in the body Sodium, potassium, calcium, hydrogen, chloride, and hydroxide
Solvent A medium that is doing the dissolving
Solutes Molecules that are being dissolved
Solution A mixture
Intracellular fluid Fluid INSIDE the cell
Extracellular fluid Fluid OUTSIDE the cell
Intravascular fluid Blood plasma
Interstitial fluid Fluid BETWEEN the cells and blood
CHON + % Carbon 18%, Hydrogen 10%, Oxygen 65%, Nitrogen 3% = 96%
What macronutrients make up 30% of the body? Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids
3 biomolecules Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids
How do carbohydrates form in the body? Monosaccharides and polysaccharides
Examples of carbohydrates Glucose (mono) and glycogen (poly)
What do carbohydrates do? Make fuel for the cells
How do proteins form in the body? Disassembles (amino acid), primary structure (peptide chain), complete (protein)
Examples of proteins Collagen, transport channels, enzymes, hair & nails
What do proteins do? Everything
Other kinds of proteins Structural, enzyme, transport, and contractile
How do lipids form in the body? Triglycerides (fatty acid chain), phospholipids, adipocyte (energy storage)
Examples of lipids Enzymes, skin, cavity linings
What do lipids do? Make membranes by lubricating joints and other structures for ease of movement and stores stuff
Cellular respiration Sugars are turned into usable energy
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Chemical energy used by all cells, stores energy (anabolism) and releases energy (catabolism)
Why Is cellular energy needed?7 To move molecules, (water, sodium, etc), protein synthesis, muscle contractions, metabolism, etc
What body system returns body fluids to the bloodstream? Lymphatic system
Created by: lbradfield1



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