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Cardiology - 20

Study Guide for Cardiology RDP

Pulmonary Circuit Network of blood vessels that carries blood to and from the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs
Systemic Circuit Network of blood vessels that transports blood to and from the rest of the body
Arteries Efferent vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Veins Afferent vessels that carry blood to heart
Capillaries (Exchange Vessels) Thin walled vessels that interconnect smallest veins and arteries
Flow of Blood Systemic Circuit -> Right Atrium -> Right Ventricle -> Pulmonary Circuit -> Left Atrium -> Left Ventricle -> Systemic Circuit
Apex Inferior pointed tip of the heart
Mediastinum Region between two pleural cavities
Pericardial Sac Dense network of collagen fibers that surrounds the heart and stabilizes the position of the heart within the mediastinum
Pericardium Lining of pericardial cavity
Visceral Pericardium Line ... Outer surface of the heart
Parietal Pericardium Line ... Inner surface of the heart
Pericardial Fluid Fluid, that acts as a lubricant, that reduces friction between opposing surfaces
Pericarditis Condition where pathogens create inflammation within the pericardium, making a scratching sound
Cardiac Tamponade Increased fluid within the pericardial cavity that restricts movement of the heart
Auricle Expandable extension of an atrium
Coronary Sulcus A deep grove that marks the border between ventricles and atrium
Anterior and Posterior Interventricular Sulcus Border mark between left and right ventricle
Heart Wall Components Epicardium (outer), Myocardium (middle), Endocardium (inner)
Myocardium Muscular wall of the heart
Cardiac Muscle Cells Characteristic 1.) Small Size 2.) Single centrally located nucleus 3.) Branching interconnections between cells 4.) Presence of intercalated cells
Atrioventricular Valves (AV) Valves that permit blood flow only in one direction, from atria to ventricles
Right Atrium Receives blood from systemic circuit
Coronary Sinus Large thin walled vein that opens intro right atrium inferior to connection with superior vena cava
Foramen Ovale Oval opening that connects the two atria of a fetal heart
Fossa Ovalis Small, shallow depression that results from a closing of the foramen ovale
Right Ventricle Receives blood from right atrium
Right Atrioventricular Valve (AV) A tricuspid valve that allows blood to enter into the right ventricle from right atrium
Chordae Tendineae Connective tissue fibers that originate at the papillary muscles
Papillary Muscles Conical muscular projections that arise from inner surface of right ventricle
Tricuspid Valve Process Papillary muscles contract which pulls on the chordae tendineae that then opens the tricuspid valve
Semilunar Cusps Allows blood flow from ventricles into the pulmonary circuit or the systemic circuit
Pulmonary Circuit Pulmonary Trunk -> Left and Right Pulmonary Arteries -> Capillaries
Left Atrium Receives blood from pulmonary circuit (Left and Right pulmonary veins)
Left Ventricle Receives blood from left atrium
Left Ventricle Larger than Right Ventricle Left ventricle supplies blood to the human body, except the lungs, which requires more pressure and muscle that the right ventricle, which supplies blood to the lungs
Aortic Valve Prevents backwards blood flow into the ventricles
Systemic Circuit Ascending Aorta -> Aortic Arch -> Descending Aorta
Differences Between Right and Left Ventricle 1.) Right has pouch appearance, Left is circular 2.) Left requires more pressure, blood entering into systemic circuit 3.) Right contracts, with blood squeezed along the left's thick, muscular wall 4.) Left contracts by becoming narrower and shorter
Atrioventricular Valves (AV) Prevent backflow of blood from ventricle to atria
Regurgitation Backflow of blood into atria caused by a cut chordae tendineae or damaged papillary muscle
Aortic Sinuses Sacs located adjacent to the aortic valve, that prevents cusp from sticking to atria wall
Carditis Inflammation of the heart
Rheumatic Fever Inflammatory autoimmune response to an infection caused by streptococcal bacteria
Connective Tissue Fibers Collagen & Elastic Fibers
Cardiac Skeleton Four dense bands if tough elastic tissue that encircle heart valves and bases of pulmonary trunk and aorta
Coronary Circulation Circulation that supplies blood to muscle tissue of the heart
Right Coronary Artery supplies... Right Atrium, Portions of both ventricles, Portions of conducting system of the heart (SA and AV node)
Left Coronary Artery supplies... Left Ventricle, Left Atrium, Interventricular Septum
Marginal Arteries Arteries, that arose out of the right coronary artery and is across the surface of the right ventricle
Circumflex Artery Artery that curves left around coronary sulcus
Arterial Anastomoses Interconnections between arteries
Great Cardiac Vein A vein that begins on the anterior surface of the ventricles, along the interventricular sulcus, and goes along the coronary sinus
Cardiac Veins that Empty into Great Vein 1.) Posterior Cardiac Vein 2.) Middle Cardiac Vein 3.) Small Cardiac Vein
Anterior Cardiac Veins Drains anterior surface of the right ventricle to right atrium
Cardiac Muscle Cells Involved ... 1.) Specialized muscle cells of conducting system 2.) Contractile Cells
Muscle Cells of Conducting System Control and coordinate heartbeat
Contractile Cells Produces powerful contractions that propel blood
SA Node Sinoatrial Node
AV Node Atrioventricular Node
Cardiac Cycle Period of the start of one heartbeat to the next
Automaticity When cardiac muscle tissues contract on their own
Conducting System A network of specialized cardiac muscle cells that initiates and distributes electrical pulses
Location of SA and AV Node SA Node - Wall of right atrium AV Node - At junction between atria and ventricles
Conducting Cells 1.) Interconnect AV and SA nodes 2.) In atria, found in internodal pathways 3.) In ventricles, in the AV bundle and bundle branches, and also purkinje fibers
Prepotential (Pacemaker Potential) Gradual depolarization of the AV and SA node's membrane
SA establishes ... Heart Rate
Internodal Pathways Located along atria walls that connects the SA node with the AV node
Slower AV Node than SA node 1.) Nodal cells are smaller on average in diameter than conducting cells 2.) Connection between nodal cells less efficient than conducting cells
Delay in AV Node Importance Allows for enough time for contraction of the atria before ventricles
Impulse Pathway Atrioventricular Bundle -> Bundle Branches -> Purkinje Fibers -> Ventricular Myocardium -> Ventricular Contraction
Bradycardia Heart rate is slower than normal
Tachycardia Heart rate is faster than normal
Impulse Pathway & Papillary Muscles Connection Bundle branches deliver impulse to the papillary muscles that then applies tension to the chordae tendineae, preventing backflow from ventricles to atria
Ectopic Pacemaker Abnormal signals that partially or completely bypasses the conducting system
Electrocardiogram (EKG) Recording of electrical events in the heart
P-Wave Depolarization of the atria (contractions)
QRS Complex Depolarization of ventricles (contraction)
R Pinnacle of QRS complex signaling ventricle contraction
T-Wave Repolarization of ventricles
T-Wave Reduction Causes 1.) Starvation 2.) Low Cardiac Energy Reserves 3.) Coronary Ischemia 4.) Abnormal Ion Concentration
Cardiac Muscle Cells Action Potential Rapid Depolarization, Plateau, Repolarization
Rapid Depolarization Membrane becomes permeable to sodium ions that depolarizes sarcolemma, instigates sodium channels
Plateau Sodium ions are pumped out of cell and calcium ions enter, instigates slow calcium channels
Repolarization Potassium ions rush out of cells producing rapid repolarization, instigates slow potassium channels
Refractory Period Cell membrane is unresponsive and occurs during plateau phase
Ion During Plateau Phase Calcium (II) Ion
Oxygen for Cardiac Contraction Oxygen molecules bounded to heme unit of myoglobin molecules
Systole Heart Contraction
Diastole Heart Relaxation
Cardiac Cycle Phases 1.) Atrial Systole 2.) Atrial Systole Ends, Diastole Begins 3.) Ventricular Systole, First Phase 4.) Ventricular Systole, Second Phase 5.) Ventricular Diastole, Early 6.) Ventricular Diastole, Late
Atrial Systole Atria contracts with blood flowing to ventricles
End Diastolic Volume (EDV) Amount of blood in each ventricles at end of ventricular diastole, start of ventricular systole
Blood Capacity Rate Ventricles = 70% Capacity Atria = Remaining 30%
Ventricular Systole Ventricles contract and AV valves are shut closed
Isovolumetric Contraction Heart valves are closed, volumes of ventricles not changing, and ventricular pressure rising
Stroke Volume (SV) Amount ventricles eject during ventricular ejection
End Systolic Volume (ESV) Amount of blood remaining in each ventricle after ventricular systole, start of ventricular diastole
Ventricle Diastole Ventricles relax with blood flow against the semilunar valves, causing them to close
Isovolumetric Relaxation When blood cannot flow to the ventricles, because of ventricular pressure being higher than arterial pressure
S1 Start of Ventricular contraction, AV valves close, Semilunar valves open
S2 Beginning of ventricular filling, Semilunar valves close, AV valves open
S3 Blood flowing into ventricles
S4 Atrial Contractions
Cardio Dynamics Movements and forces generated during cardiac contractions
Stroke Volume Explanation Hand pump of a full up and down, EDV = Lifting handle upward and amount of water to be pumped, ESV = Lifting handle downward and amount of water released
Ejection Fraction Percentage of EDV represented by Stroke Volume (SV)
Largest Stroke Volume Larger EDV and smaller ESV
Cardiac Output Amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one minute
Cardiac Output Equation Heart Rate * Stroke Volume
Cardiac Plexus Nerve network located at the base of the heart
Medulla Oblongata Contains autonomic headquarters for cardiac control, located at base of the brain
Cardiac Acceleratory Centers Controls sympathetic neurons that increase heart rate
Cardioinhibitory Centers Controls parasympathetic neurons that slow heart rate
Cardiac Centers Monitors ... 1.) Baroreceptors 2.) Chemoreceptors
Baroreceptors Report changes in blood pressure
Chemoreceptors Report changes in arterial concentrations of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide
Vagus Nerves Nerves that are connected with parasympathetic neurons, where a cut could produced increase heart rate
Venous Return Amount of blood returning to heart through veins
Depolarization Contraction of heart
Repolarization Resting of the heart
EDV Factors to Stroke Volume 1.) Filling time 2.) Preload 3.) Larger EDV 4.) Limitation to ventricle expansion
ESV Factors to Stroke Volume 1.) Preload 2.) Contractility of ventricles 3.) Afterload
Contractility Amount of force produced during contraction
Positive Inotropic Action Factors that increase contractility
Negative Inotropic Action Factors that decrease contractility
Afterload Amount of tension that contracting ventricles must produce to open semilunar valves and eject blood
Afterload Increase = Stroke Volume Decrease
Cardiac Reserve Difference between resting and maximal cardiac output
Created by: JGonzalezP1



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