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Cardiology - 19

Study Guide for Cardiology RDP

Cardiovascular System A body system that contains a pump (heart) and conducting hose (blood vessels) that transports fluids throughout the body.
Blood Specialized fluid connective tissue that contains cells suspended in a fluid matrix
Functions of Blood 1.) Transports dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic waste 2.) Regulates pH and ion composition of interstitial fluids 3.) Restricts fluid losses at injury sites 4.) Defends against toxins and pathogens 5.) Stabilize body temperature
Plasma Blood Matrix
Whole Blood Composition Plasma and Formed Elements
Hematocrit Percentage of formed elements in a sample of blood
Plasma Proteins Albumins, Globulins, and Fibrinogens
Formed Elements Platelets, White Blood Cells (Leukocytes), Red Blood Cells
Blood Physical Characteristics 1.) Blood temperature around 38 Celsius 2.) Five times as viscous as water 3.) Slightly alkaline at 7.4
Venipuncture Procedure where blood is drawn from superficial vein
Why Venipuncture? Superficial veins easy to locate, vein walls thinner, and low blood pressure with quicker healing
Albumins 1.) Majority of Plasma proteins 2.) Contributes to osmotic pressure and plasma osmolarity 3.) Transports fatty acids, thyroid hormones, some steroid hormones and others
Globulins 1.) Second most abundant 2.) Antibodies and transport proteins 3.) Examples: Hormone-binding proteins, Metalloproteins, Apolipoproteins, Steroid-Binding Proteins
Fibrinogen 1.) Third Plasma protein 2.) Converts to fibrin, insoluble substance, during blood clotting
Serum Fluid left after fibrin separates from fibrinogen
RBC Red Blood Cells
WBC White Blood Cells
RBC Shape Effect 1.) Large surface-area to volume ratio 2.) Can form stacks, called rouleaux, that can move through narrow blood vessels 3.) Bendable and flexible to move through small capillaries and branches
Hemoglobin (Hb) Molecules, 95% of intercellular proteins, that gives the cell ability to transport O and CO2
Hb structure 1.) 2 alpha and beta polypeptide chains 2.) Each chain contains heme 3.) Oxyhemoglobin - oxygen interacts with heme's iron giving bright red color 4.) Deoxyhemoglobin - oxygen doesn't interact with heme's iron giving dark red color
Thalassemia Condition where there is an inability to produce sufficient alpha and beta polypeptide chains
Sickle Cell Anemia Mutation that affects the beta chains of hemoglobin that produces unhealthy sickle shape
Anemia Interferes with oxygen delivery to peripheral tissue
Hemolyzed RBC = Rupture RBCs
Hemoglobinuria Condition where abnormally large numbers of RBCs break down in blood stream
RBC Breakdown 1.) Globular proteins divide into amino acids (metabolized or released) 2.) Heme is stripped of iron, converted to biliverdin, then to bilirubin 3.) Bilirubin attaches to albumin and transported to liver for excretion 4.) Transferrin transports iron
Jaundice Build up of bilirubin in the blood stream giving the yellowish appearance in the fingers and eyes
Erythropoiesis Red blood cell formation that takes place in the red bone marrow
RBC maturation 1.) Hematopoietic stem cells produce myeloid and lymphoid stem cells 2.) RBC -> Proerythroblasts and then goes through erythroblast stages 3.) RBC sheds nucleus and becomes a reticulocyte 4.) Reticulocytes released into blood stream and fully matures
Pernicious Anemia Deficiency in vitamin B12 that is obtained from diary products and meat
Erythropoietin (EPO) A glycoprotein responsible for stimulating stem cells and developing RBCs
EPO released when ... 1.) In anemia 2.) Blood flow to kidneys decline 3.) Oxygen content of air in lungs decline with disease or high altitude 4.) Respiratory surfaces of the lungs are damaged
EPO Major Effects 1.) Stimulates cell division rates in erythroblasts and in stem cells responsible for process 2.) Speeds up RBC maturation with Hb synthesis imcrease
Blood Doping Practice where athletes elevate their hematocrit through reinfusing packed RBCs
Antigens Substances that trigger an immune response
Surface Antigens 1.) Located on plasma membranes 2.) Recognized as normal by immune system
Surface Antigens Type A, B, & Rh (D)
Blood Type Determined by presence or absence of specific surface antigens
Blood Types A, B, AB, & O
Rh Rh+ = Presence of Rh antigen Rh- = Absence of Rh antigen
Agglutinogens Surface antigens ignored by the immune system
Blood Type and Antibodies Type A , Anti-B antibodies Type B, Ant-A antibodies Type AB, No antibodies Type O, Both Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies
Agglutination (Clumping) When surface antigens and opposing antibodies come into contact
Cross Reaction RBC agglutination and hemolysis
Type O Blood Universal Donor
Type AB Universal Recipient
WBC Characteristic 1.) Can migrate out of bloodstream 2.) Capable of amoeboid movement 3.) Attracted to specific chemical stimuli 4.) Neutrophils, Eosinophils, and Monocytes capable of phagocytosis
Margination Process where activated WBC's stick to vessel walls
Diapedesis WBC's squeeze between endothelial cells and enter into surrounding tissues
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN) Condition where the mother's antibodies attack and destroy fetal RBCs
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, and Monocytes are... Body's nonspecific defense
Lymphocytes are ... Body's specific defense
Neutrophils Most common WBC that is the first to arrive at an injury site and attacks and digest bacteria with antibodies or complement proteins
Pus Is composed of dead neutrophils and other substances
Eosinophils Attacks objects coated with antibodies and increase greatly during parasitic infection and allergic reactions
Exocytosis Ejection of cytoplasmic materials by fusion of a membranous vesicle with the plasma membrane
Basophils Rare WBC that migrates to injury sites in order to release histamine and heparin into interstitial fluid to enhance inflammation
Histamine Granules that dilates blood vessel
Heparin A compound that prevents blood clotting
Monocytes Aggressive phagocytes, also are WBCs, that engulf large things, release chemicals to attract other WBCs, and draw fibroblasts to produce scare tissue at injured area
Lymphocytes WBCs that has three functional classes
T cells Cell mediated immunity where they attack directly or control lymphocyte activity
B cells Humoral immunity which acts as a defense with the production of antibodies and plasma cells that synthesize and secret antibodies
Natural Killers (NK) Cells Immune surveillance where there is detection and destruction of abnormal cells
Leukopenia Inadequate numbers of WBC
Leukocytosis Excessive numbers of WBC
Lymphopoiesis Process of lymphocyte production
Lymphatic Tissues are... Thymus, Spleen, and Lymph Nodes
Colony Stimulating Factors (CSFs) Hormones that regulate WBCs
CFSs 1.) M-CSF 2.) G-CSF 3.) GM-CSF 4.) Multi-CSF
Thrombocytes Platelets found in nonmammalian vertebrates that are whole cells rather than cell fragments
Thrombocytopenia Abnormally low platelet count
Thrombocytosis Excessively high platelet count caused by infection, inflammation, or cancer
Platelet Functions 1.) Release chemicals important to blood clotting 2.) Form temporary patch on walls of damaged blood vessels, the patches are known as a platelet plug 3.) Reduce size of break in vessel wall by releasing filaments of actin and myosin to shrink clot
Thrombocytopoiesis Platelet production
Megakaryocytes Enormous cells with large nuclei that manufactures structural proteins, enzymes, and membranes
3 Substances That Influence Megakaryocyte Activity and Platelet Formation 1.) Thrombopoietin (TPO) 2.) Interleukin-6 (IL-6) 3.) Multi-CSF
Thrombopoietin (TPO) Peptide hormones produced in kidneys that accelerates platelet production and stimulates production of megakaryocytes
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Hormone that stimulates platelet formation
Multi-CSF Stimulates platelet production through promotion of megakaryocytes formation and growth
Hemostasis The stopping of bleeding
Hemostasis Three Phases Vascular, Platelet, & Coagulation
Vascular Spasm Contraction of the blood vessel caused by a cut along the walls
Changes During Vascular Phase 1.) Endothelial Cells contract & expose underlying basement membrane in bloodstream 2.) Endothelial Cells release chemical factors and local hormones 3.) Endothelial plasma membranes become sticky
Endothelins Peptide hormones released by endothelial cells
Endothelins Purpose 1.) Stimulate smooth muscle contraction & promote vascular spasm 2.) Stimulate division of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblast to speed up repair process
Platelet Adhesion Attachment of platelets to exposed surfaces
Platelet Aggregation Platelets stick to one another after arrival, forming a platelet plug
Compounds Released by Platelets ADP, Thromboxane A2 & Serotonin, Clotting Factors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Calcium Ions
Key Factors In Limitation of Platelet Plug Growth 1.) Prostacyclin, inhibits platelet aggregation 2.) WBC release of inhibitory compound 3.) Plasma enzymes breakdown ADP near plug 4.) Abundant compounds that inhibit plug formation 5.) Blood Clot development, isolates from general circulation
Procoagulants Clotting Factors
Pathways in Coagulation Extrinsic, Intrinsic, and Common Pathway
Thrombin stimulates ... 1.) Formation of Tissue Factor 2.) Release of PF-3 Platelets
Clotting Control Anticoagulants, Heparin, Thrombomodulin, Prostacyclin
Antithrombin III Enzyme that inhibits thrombin
Heparin Cofactor, released by basophils and mast cells, that accelerates antithrombin III activation
Thrombomodulin Binds to thrombin to activate the enzyme in order to activate Protein C
Prostacyclin Inhibits platelet aggregation
Vitamin K Fat-soluble vitamin present in green vegetables, grains, and organ meats
Clot Retraction Where the torn edges of the vessels pull closer together allowing for successful blood clot
Fibrinolysis Gradual dissolution of a blood clot
Created by: JGonzalezP1



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