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Foot Anatomy


Ankle: Medial (deltoid) ligament Tibionavicular part; Tibiocalcaneal part; Tibiotalar part (ant and post)
Ankle: Lateral ligament Ant talofibular lig; Post talofibular lig; Calcaneofibular lig
Multiple joints contribute to: mobility of foot
Ankle joint: movement Dorsiflexion/ plantarflexion
Subtalar joint: movement Inversion/ eversion of foot
Intertarsal joints: movement Inversion/ eversion of foot
Tarsometatarsal joints: movement Limited sliding movements; Inc movement at 1st metatarsal
MTP joints: movement Flex/ ext, ltd ab/adduction, circumduction
Interphalangeal joints: movement Flexion/ extension
Arches (2) = Longitudinal; Transverse arch
Arches: fn absorb and distribute force from the body
Longitudinal arch is highest where: medially
Arches supported by ligs & tendons: Plantar aponeurosis; Long/ short plantar ligs; Tibialis ant/ post tendons; Fib longus tendon
Fascia of sole of foot wrt skin: is tightly adherent to skin
Fibrous septa: fn anchor skin and create fat-filled spaces for shock absorption
Deep fascia of foot forms: plantar aponeurosis
Ankle sprain/ fx eversion or inversion injury
Eversion injury: assoc with: medial tears of ankle (eg tibiotalar lig, Tibionavicular; Tibiocalcaneal)
Inversion injury: assoc with: lateral tears of ankle
Potts fx = aka bimalleolar fracture; shears off other malleolus
talus fx => Avascular necrosis
trimalleolar fx assoc w: ant lip of tibia (plus malleoli)
Bunion = sublux of big toe joint due to malalignment of first metatarsal (aka Hallus valgus)
Plantar fasciitis: assoc with microtears of planta fascia (can lead to calcaneal spurs)
Mallet toe injury: avulsion injury of first extensor hood to distal phalanx
Hammer & claw: imbalance of tendons of foot (e.g., wearing heels long time: shortens tendons)
Dorsum: Extrinsic mx tendons EHL; EDL
Dorsum: Intrinsic mx EHB; Ext digit brevis
Plantar: Extrinsic mx tendons FHL; FDL
Plantar: Intrinsic mx tendons Abd HB/abd digiti minimi; FDB/FHB/F digit minimi brevis; Quadratus plantae; Lumbricals; Add hall; Interossei
Foot mx: Layer 1 Abd hall; FDB; abd digit minimi
Tendon of FDL passes through: tendon of FDB (as in hand); Held to digits by fibrous digital sheaths
Foot mx: Layer 2 Tendons of extrinsic flexors (FDL, FHL); Quadratus plantae; Lumbricals
Foot: Layer 3: FHB; Adductor hallucis; Flexor digiti minimi brevis
FHB: 2 heads: origins Lateral head from cuboid; Medial head from tendon of tib post
FHB tendons contain: sesamoid bones that lie inferior to the 1st MTP joint
Adductor hallucis: Heads Oblique and transverse heads
Foot: Layer 4: Plantar interossei; Dorsal interossei
Tibial nerve splits into: Lateral plantar n.; Medial plantar n.
Blood Supply to Foot: anterior Ant tibial a. => Dorsalis pedis a. => Arcuate a. => Dorsal metatarsal arts => Dorsal digital arts
Blood Supply to Foot: posterior: Post tibial a. Post tibial a. => Lateral plantar a. => Deep plantar arch => Plantar digital arts =>
Blood Supply to Foot: posterior: Medial plantar a. Medial plantar a. => Superficial plantar arch => Plantar digital arts
Dorsum mx of foot: all innervated by: Deep fib n.
Foot mx: Layers 1-4: innervated by: tibial n.
Common fib n. gives off: Superficial fib n.; Deep fib n.
Superficial fib nerve innervates: Skin over dorsum of foot
Deep fibular nerve innervates: All mx of dorsal foot except EHB & EDB
Tibial nerve: gives off: Medial plantar n.; Lateral plantar n.
Mx of plantar foot: innervation Have split innervation btw Medial plantar n. & Lateral plantar n.
Action: Abductor hallucis Abduct great toe
Action: Flexor digitorum brevis Flex digits 2-5 at MTP and PIP joints
Action: Abductor digiti minimi Abducts fifth digit
Action: Quadratus plantae Assists FDL by attaching to FDL tendon
Action: Lumbricals Flexion of MTP joints, extension of IP joints
Action: Adductor hallucis Adduct great toe
Action: Flexor digiti minimi brevis Flex fifth digit
Action: Plantar interossei Adduct toes
Action: Dorsal interossei Abduct toes
Action: FHB Flex big toe
Dorsum: Extrinsic mx EHL; EDL
Dorsum: Intrinsic mx EHB; EDB
Plantar Foot: Extrinsic mx FHL; FDL
Plantar Foot: Intrinsic Layer 1 Abd HB; FDB; Abd dig min
Plantar Foot: Intrinsic Layer 2 tendons of FDL/FHL; quad plantae; lumbricals
Plantar Foot: Intrinsic Layer 3 FHB; Add hall; F dig min brev
Plantar Foot: Intrinsic Layer 4 PI; DI
Abd Hall: attach: Calcaneus TO prox phalanx of hallux
Abd dig min: attach: Calcaneus TO prox phalanx of 5
FDB: attach: Calcaneus TO middle phalanges of 2-5
EHL: attach: fibula TO distal of 1
EDL: attach: Tibia & fibula TO middle & distal of 2-5
EHB: attach: Calcaneus TO base of 1
EDB: attach: Calcaneus TO ext hoods of 2-4
FHB: attach: cuboid & tendon of tibialis posterior TO prox phalanx of 1
F dig min brev: attach: Base of metatarsal 5 TO Base of proximal phalanx of toe 5
Quad plantae: attach: Calcaneus TO FDL tendon
Lumbricals: attach: FDL tendon TO Extensor expansion over lateral 4 digits
Add hall: attach: Trans head: MTP joints of toes 3-5; Oblique head: base of metatarsals 2-4; TO prox phalanx of 1
PI: attach: MT 3-5 TO prox phalanges of 3-5
DI: attach: MT 1-5 TO phalanges of 2-4
Created by: Abarnard