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Midterm Q/A Review
|Nonsteroid hormones include peptides, proteins, glycoproteins, and amines T/F
|Maxwell has a very high metabolic rate, is skinny, and has protruding eyes. These are symptoms of
|A hormone is a secreted molecule that is carried in the bloodstream to where it acts on target cells that bear specific receptors for that hormone. T/F
|Choose the example that does not demonstrate a negative feedback loop of hormonal control.
|A female patient is experiencing a hormonal imbalance that is causing her to skip menstrual periods due to low estrogen and miss ovulation. Which of the following is most likely the imbalanced hormone?
|A hormone is a __________ and the target cell is __________.
|molecule that has a metabolic effect on another cell; a cell that has receptors for specific hormones
|Simple goiter is most prevalent where the soil lacks
|The hormone that stimulates calcium deposition into bone is
|Steroid hormones diffuse through cell membranes, then bind with receptors, whereas nonsteroid hormones bind receptors on the target cell membrane.
|A sweat gland is an example of a(n) __________ gland.
|The secretion of parathyroid hormone is controlled primarily by the
|concentration of blood calcium
|The __________ secretes triiodothyronine.
|The hormone that the pineal gland secretes is
|The thymus gland secretes hormones called __________ that __________.
|thymosins; control production and differentiation of white blood cells
|are soluble in lipids.
|The sex hormones from the adrenal cortex are primarily androgens. T/F
|The target cells of releasing hormones are in the anterior pituitary gland. T/F
|Secretion of insulin causes
|a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose
|Oxytocin stimulates the kidneys to conserve water. T/F
|As a result of the general stress response, blood concentrations of epinephrine and _____ rise
|and cortisol rise.
|The thymus enlarges after puberty. T/F
|Glands under armpit pic
|axillary lymph nodes
|Activation of what group of proteins in the plasma leads to inflammation, attraction of phagocytes, and enhancement of phagocytosis?
|Absence or blockage of lymph vessels in a body region leads directly to what condition?
|Lymph differs from plasma in that
|plasma has more protein than lymph.
|Lymphatic pathways begin at the lymphatic capillaries which empty into lymphatic vessels. From there, fluid flows through lymphatic __________ into lymphatic __________, eventually emptying into veins in the thorax.
|When T or B cells are activated, they proliferate, forming a group of genetically identical cells descending from the original activated cell. What is the name of this group of identical cells?
|What is not true of the spleen?
|The spaces in the lobes of the spleen are filled with lymph.
|What is the name of the fluid contained within vessels of the lymphatic system?
|What term refers to any molecule that elicits an immune response?
|Memory T and B cells function in what type of response?
|The region of a lymph node through which blood vessels and nerves pass is called the
|What type of immunity will result from receiving a vaccination?
|Artificially acquired active immunity
|In order to be fully activated, most __________ cells require interaction with __________ cells.
|yellow gland by sternum
|remnant of thymus
|The two collecting ducts that drain the lymphatic trunks are the
|thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct.
|Lymph eventually is returned to the circulation at what blood vessels?
|Right and left subclavian veins
|What class of immunoglobulin is involved in immediate-reaction allergic reactions?
|What is the first component(s) of the immune system to decline with age?
|Muscle contraction moves lymph through lymphatic vessels. T/F
|What term is used for disorders resulting from the immune system attacking "self" cells?
|The thymus is in the mediastinum behind the sternum. T/F
|Older red blood cells may be destroyed in the spleen. T/F
|The structure of a lymphatic vessel is most similar to that of a(n)
|Blood Type O
|RBC antigens: neither A nor B antigens * Plasma antibodies: Both anti-A and anti-B antibodies
|Blood Type A
|RBC antigens: Only A antigen * Plasma antibodies: only B antibodies
|Blood Type B
|RBC antigens: Only B antigen * Plasma antibodies: only A antibodies
|Blood Type AB
|RBC antigens: Both A & B antigens * Plasma antibodies: neither A or B antibodies
|The biconcave cells in blood that lack nuclei when they are mature are the
|Red blood cells
|Cyanosis is caused by an increased blood concentration of
|Erythroblastosis fetalis may occur in
|a second Rh-positive fetus developing in an Rh-negative woman.
|What is the typical life span of a red blood cell?
|A blood clot that forms abnormally in a blood vessel is a(n)
|Persons with type AB blood are sometimes called universal donors. T/F
|headaches, bruise easily and nose bleeds?
|Abnormal hemoglobin; causes hemoglobin to crystallize in low oxygen conditions.
|Low platelet count; results in decreased blood clotting and bruising
|What is a result of reduced red blood cell count and/or reduced hemoglobin content of the blood? Multiple
|Diminished oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
|Process that stops bleeding
|A person with type AB blood can successfully receive blood from
|all blood types
|The percentage of red blood cells in a sample of human blood is normally about
|Universal precautions are
|specific measures that health-care workers should take to prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens in the workplace.
|Platelets are best described as
|cytoplasmic fragments of cells.
|Which of the following elements is included in hemoglobin molecules?
|Which of the following usually accounts for the smallest percentage of leukocytes in a blood sample?
|What component of blood accounts for the largest proportion of the blood volume?
|What is the name of the condition in which there is a deficiency in red blood cells or in the amount of hemoglobin?
|An excessive number of white blood cells is classified as
|A deficiency in white blood cells is classified as
|Persons with __________ blood have neither antigen A nor antigen B on their red blood cells but have antibody anti-A and antibody anti-B in their plasma.
|The basic event in the formation of a blood clot is the change of
|fibrinogen to fibrin
|While looking at a sample of blood in a microscope, you see a purple-stained cell that is markedly larger than a red blood cell (about two to three times larger). It has a large kidney-shaped nucleus. What type of blood cell is this?
|What is a mass of cells that act as a unit in the heart called?
|When the first heart sound is heard, what is occuring with the heart valves?
|The AV valves are closing.
|If it was taking longer for an electrical impulse to get through the AV node, what would the ECG look like?
|Time between the P wave and QRS complex would be lengthened. Correct
|The left ventricle pushes blood into what vessel(s)?
|A cold, pale foot could be a sign of a blockage of blood flow in the __________ artery.
|When the ventricular walls contract,
|the mitral and tricuspid valves close.
|What formula best describes the relationship of the factors that determine blood pressure?
|Blood Pressure = Cardiac Output x Peripheral Resistance
|When the atria contract during a cardiac cycle, the ventricles are __________. When the ventricles contract, the atria are __________.
|Circulation is vital because it
|supplies oxygen and nutrients to and removes wastes from tissues.
|The right atrium receives blood directly from
|the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus.
|What structure is also known as the pacemaker of the heart?
|Mr. Smith is admitted to the cardiac unit with a diagnosis of endocarditis. When he asks the nurse where the infection is located, the nurse replies that the infection is in __________.
|the inner lining of the heart
|If all nerves from the central nervous system to the heart were severed, the heart would stop beating. T/F
|A myocardial infarction of the right ventricle could be caused by a blockage in the __________.
|posterior interventricular artery
|The correct sequence of parts that carry cardiac impulses is
|SA node, AV node, AV bundle, Purkinje fibers.
|The inner lining of the heart is the
|What is the function of chordae tendineae?
|Prevent the cusps of the AV valves from moving up into the atria
|Swelling of the hand could be caused by a thrombosis (blood clot) in the __________ vein.
|A rise in blood pressure detected by baroreceptors would result in a(n) __________ in heart rate due to __________ stimulation.
|What wave in an ECG tracing depicts ventricular repolarization?
|What valve is located between the right atrium and right ventricle?