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CH35 CardiacDisorder

MOD IV Cardiac anatomy questions

Deoxgenated blood goes from veins to what major vein? Superior and inferior vena cavae
From the vena cava (VC) blood goes to what chamber of the heart? RA = right atrium
From the RA what valve does blood pass thru? Tricuspid
From the tricuspid what chamber does blood go to? RV = right ventricle
what valve does blood go thru after the right ventricle pulmonanary valve
Does blood from the pulmonic valve go thru pulmonary vein or artery? Pulmonary artery (A = away from heart)
Blood in the pulmonary artery goes to what organ? Lungs
From the lungs, blood re-enters the heart from what vein or artery? Pulmonary veins
how many pulmonary veins are on each side of the heart two
what chamber receives blood from the pulmonary veins? left atrium
what valve does blood pass through from the left atrium? Mitral or bicuspid valve
blood from the LA and mitral enter what Chamber? LV= Left ventricle
which chamber is the weakest and thinnest chamber? RA
which chamber is the thickest and strongest contracting chamber? LV
from the left ventricle, blood passes thru what valve and enters what main artery? Aortic vavle to the Aorta
4 chambers of the heart RA, RV, LA, LV
What did Mrs. Gorcya tell us to remember which valve is on the right side of the heart? Tricuspid = "Tri to do the RIGHT thing"
muscle wall that seperates the chambers Septa
these seperate the atria from the ventricles valves
RV and LV contractions are systole or diastole systole
part of the LV where we can hear pulse apex = apical pulse
systemic ciruclation transports to these organs for excretion kidneys, liver, skin
side of the heart with the strongest pressure left side
why is the left side of the heart stronger than we right side? pumps blood to the systemic circulation
three layers of cardiac tissue endo, myo, epi cardium
inner layer of cardiac tissue endocardium
middle layer of cardiac tissue myo
myocardium does what action of the heart pumping action
outer layer of cardiac issue epicardium
another name for epicardium visceral pericardium
what is embedded in the epicardium coronary arteries
purpose of valves reatian blood in one chamber until next chamber is ready to receive it
valves keep blood flowing in one or two directins one
valves open and close passively or actively passively
valves open with changes in what two things pressure and volume
when pressure BEHIND a valve is greater then the pressure ahead of it what occurs? valves open (blood fills up chamber)
when does a valve close? pressure after it is greater than pressure before it
name for both mitral and tricuspid atrioventricular valve
during systole Mitral and tricuspids are open or closed? closed (ventricle contraction = systole = blood full in ventricle chamber = greater pressure after the mitral or tricuspid valves)
during diastole, atrioventricular valves are open or closed open (ventricles at rest = less pressure after atrioventricular valves)
name of both aortic and pulmonic valves semilunar valves
semilunar valves are open and closed when? open = systole; closed = diastole
heart sound heard when ventricles contract and artioventricular (mitral/tricuspids)valves close Lub
dub is heard when? ventricles relax = polarization; caused by closing of aortic and pulmonary valves (semilunar)
what artery is the first branch of the systemic circulation? Coronary arteries
purpose of coronary artery supply blood to mycardium and conductive tissues of the heart
name two major coronary arteries left and right coronary arteries
coronary arteries arise from the aorta just beyond what valve aortic valve
blood flow to coronary artiers occur when? ventricles are at rest = diastole
coronary artery that supplies blood to the LA, most of the LV, and septum left coronary artery
right coronary artery supplies to what areas SA node, AV nodes, RA, RV, inferior part of LV
connections between two coronary arteries is called collateral arteries
coronary collaterals develop over time as a result of gradual coronary occlusion
Great cardiac vein follows the same path as what coronary artery left anterior descending artery
small cardiac vein follows what coronary artery right coronary artery
what is the largest coronary vein coronary sinus
purpose of coronary sinus returns dexoygenated blood from myocardium to RA
what stimulates heart contractions in a orderly fashion nerves carrying impulses to the heart
the pacemaker node SA node
what does the SA node do? initiates impulses from atria to AV node
AV node impulses are sent where? bundle of HIS
The bundle of His is made up of these cells Purkinjie cells
terminal end of bundle of HIS that causes contractions purkinjie fibers
Heart rate of SA node 60-100 bpm
Heart rate of AV node 40-60
heart rate of purkinjie (ventricular) <40 (book says 15-40)
Cardiac cells at rest are polarized or depolarized polarized = resting = diastole = negative charge
Depolarized = systole or diastole systole = contractions
two autonomic fibers that innervate the heart sympathetic and parasympathetic
This autonomoic fiber is distributed throughout the heart sympathetic
sympathetic fibers increase ___, speed of __, and result is more forceful ____. heart rate, conduction, contractions
Parasympatheic is part of the ___ nerve vagus nerve
sympathetic is found everywhere, where is parasympathetic found (3 places) SA, AV nodes, and atrial tissue
stimulation of parasympathetic fibers results in ___ heart rate, ___ conduction, ___ strength of contractions slow, slow, decrease
Which autonomic fibers is the normal/dominant state (para or sympa) Para
Contraction and relaxation of the heart make one heart beat called: Cardiac cycle
what happens when ventricles are at resting phase (diastole) fill up w/ blood coming from the atria
atrial kick atria contract to eject more blood into the ventricles
if a person has a heart rate of 68 bpm, what is their cardiac cycle per minute 68
amount of blood ejected w/ each ventricular contraction stroke volume
normal stroke volume is: 60-100 mL
amount of blood in liters ejected by th heart per minute cardiac output
what is the equation for determining cardiac output (CO) CO = heart rate x stroke volume i.e. 60 bpm x 100 mL = 6000 CO
normal range of CO 4-8 L/min
cardiac output changes/repsonds to: increased demands of O2 and nutriets for infection, exercise, and stress
name 3 factors that affect stroke volume preload, contractility, afterload
amount of blood remaining in a ventricle at the end of diastole or pressure generated at end of diastole preload
increased preload results in increased ____ leading to increased ___. stroke volume = increased Cardiac output(CO)
factors that increase preload increased venous return and overhydration
factors that decrease preload dehydration, hemmorhage (cause you are losing blodd and can't keep it in the ventricle), and venous dilation
The ability of cardiac muscle fibers to shorten and produce contraction contractility
what is another name of a contractile state intropy
factors that increase contractility have a postive or negative inotropic effect: positive (remember, contraction = systole = positive)
factors decreasing contractility have what type of effect negative inotropic effect
what condition/illness will you find w/ a pt. who has a negative inotropic effect? MI
The amount of pressure/resistance ventricles overcome to eject blood volume afterload
afterload increases when and descreases when increases = vasoconstriction; decreases = vasodilation
amount of blood ejected (not in book, look up your notes)60-65% ejection fraction
The only 2 interventions to increase O2 supply to the myocardium (heart muscle) are to: increase coronary blood flow by coronary artery vasodilation; increase O2 in blood by administering O2
Created by: Jgar2007



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