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A&P Unit 3&&

tissue group of cells working together to perform a function Contain 2 parts - the living and the extracellular matrix- non living
Histology study of tissue
Extraceullular matrix (ECM or just Matrix) non living part of the cell. located between the cells. secreted by the cells in the tissue. Very abundant in CT but Scare in Epi and muscle tissue
4 type of tissue Epithelial(epi), Connective tissue (CT), muscle tissue, Nervous tissue
Cell junctions Point where membranes of adjacent cells meet 3 types
Tight junctions Impermeable junctions(do not allow anything through) Function: Prevents leakage from hollow organ Structure: Membrane proteins adjacent cells are fused together which seals off the space between the adjacent cells and forms a tight seal between cells
Desmosome Anchoring junctions(holds cells tightly together Structure thickened area of the membranes(plaque)Functions: Prevents separation of cells, holds cells together as a sheet Located where tissue has physical(mechanical) stress
Plaque attaches Microfilaments or intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton
Hemidesmosome special type of desmosome. Half a desmosome. Functions: attach cell to basement membrane
Gap junction communication junctions(allows cell to communicate) Function: Chemical communication, allows chemical to flow directly from one cell to another. Ex Muscle and nerve cells
Epithelial tissue separates tissues/structures, forms boundaries between them, Absorption( solutes taking into the cell)/secretion(solutes sent out of cell) filtration, stimuli, protection, reduces friction. Located skin, organs, glands.
Characteristics of Epithelial tissue (microscope view) Cells tightly packed w/ little ECM, Cell junctions hold cells together,CT is always beneath Epi to provide support,nourishment,strength; Polarity
Polarity superior or inferior regions; Apical and Basal
Polarity; Apical Superior region, exposed surface. Outside of body or to the hollow cavity of an organ. Faces away from basement membrane. May have cilia or microvilli
Polarity; Basal inferior region, attached surface. Attached to the basement membrane by hemidesmosome junction
Basement membrane ECM layer between epi and CT. Functions Anchors, supports, and regulates exchange of material between CT and Epi
Avascular does not have a blood supply, obtaine nutrients from CT below
Innervated has a nerve supply,
epithelial tissue first & last name. First name indicates number of cell layers the tissue has. Last name indicates shapes of the cells in the tissue
Simple layer one layer of cells
Stratified layer more than one layer
Pseudostratified layer Made of one layer but it looks like it is more than one layer when viewed under the microscope
Squamos a flat scale like cell
cuboidal a box like cell, nucleus is round & tens to be in the middle of the cell
columnar a tall rectangle like cell, nucleus is long and oval and tends to be at the basal surface
simple squamos thin and fragile. Function: allows material to pass(filtration), reduces friction, secretes serous fluid. Located lungs, inner lining of vessels and heart, lining the ventral body cavity, kidney tubules
simple cuboidal round nucleus usually in center of the cell, some have cilia or microvilli function: secretion, absorption, move extracellular substance across membrane(only ciliated version) location: kidney tubules, thyroid gland, bronchioles, ducts of glands salivary
Simple Columnar Contain Goblet cells(special mucus secreting cells) usually have cilia or microvilli;loc: digestive tract lining, some kidney tubules, ductsof glands like the gallbladder, lining of oviducts
Pseudostratified Columnar Struc: One layer of column shaped cells but looks like more than one layer, has cilia, has goblet cells. Func: secretion, moves substances, small amount of protection(no absorption) loc: Upper resp. tract. male reproductive tract. inner ear
Stratified Epithelial Func: protection from mechanical(physical) stress, protection from entry of pathogens, provides most protection. Loca: epidermis, lining or oral & anal cavirty, vagina... 2 types Kerantinized, nonkerantinized
Kerantinized Contains keratin in apical layers.
Keratin tough protein and provides strength. Dehydrates the tissue so the apical layers are dry. Upper layers contain dead cells.
Non-Kerantinized No keratin. Apicla layers are moist. Upper layers do not contain dead cells.
Stratified cuboidal Func: secretion, moderate amount of protection(no absorption) loca: ducts of sweat glands, ovarian follicles, ducts of testes
Stratified Columnar Func: secretion, moderate of protection. Loc: Pharynx, male urethra
Transitional epithelium Func; Allows stretching. Struct: shape of the cells in the apical layer varies Squamos shaped when the tissue is stretched and cuboidal when the tissue is relaxed. Located bladder, parts or urethra/ureter
Glandular Epithelium can be used in the body- secretion. Eliminated as waster- excretion
Gland Structure that makes and/or secretes a product. can be made of 1 cell only or more than 1 cell (2 types of Glands)
Exocrine Glands Secrete to surface of epi tissue. can secrete to external body surface(skin) or internal surface of a hollow organ(stomach) have ducts , derived from epi tissue ex: mucus,sweat,oil. Live and Pancreas, salivary glands
Endocrine Glands Secrete to interstitial fluid. surrounds the cells of the body. do not have ducts, cells of the gland secrete hormones by transporting across the membrane to the interstitial fluid outside of cell, secrete hormones.
Merocrine(eccrine gland) secrete by exocytosis. Ex. Lacrimal glands(the eye) pancreas glands(digestive enzymes) sweat glands(watery liquid)
Holocrine Gland Secrete when entire cell disintegrates. Secretion contain the Product along with intercellular material and debris. (oil glands)
Apocrine Gland similar to merocrine gland but an entire vesicle leaves the cell with the secretion inside. Mammary gland
Connective tissue Functions: connects structures, support& protection, insulation, transport of substance in the body, energy storage, immune system. located everywhere in the body
Characteristics of CT Common origin- all derived from same embryonic tissue(mesenchyme), Variable vascularity(most vascular,some avascular); Abundant ECM & few cells(alot of space b/w cells) innervated(except cartilage), variable rate of regeneration
Protein fibers provide support and strength. 3 tyoes
Collagen thick and strong, resist pulling forces. Collagen is most abundant type of fiber in the body
2 components of ECM Protein Fibers, ground substance
elastic Long and thin. Rubber band like. Allow for stretch and recoil
Reticular fine collagen fibers; provide flexible support; form stroma
Ground substance Consistency varies fluid(blood), Gel-(cartilage), Almost solid(bone)fluid all nutrients to pass b/w blood and cells, 2-Glycoproteins glue like proteins, binds substance&fibers-Large polymers Gycosaminoglycans (GAGS)attach water regulate water balance
Created by: cberrios



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