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Nervous System


Accessory Also known as the 11th cranial nerve; controls the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
Auriculotemporal Extends to the ear and to the area from the top of the head to the temple
Autonomic Nervous System system responsible for all involuntary body functions
Axons threadlike fibers that take information away from the cell body in the form of nerve impulses
Brain Organ that controls all three subsystems of the nervous system; referred to as the command center
Buccal Extends to the muscles of the mouth
Central Nervous System aka the cerebrospinal nervous system; composed of the brain and spinal cord; responsible for all voluntary body action
Cervical Extends into the side and front of the neck to the breastbone
Cervical Cutaneous Extends to the muscles on the side of the neck
Common Peroneal Runs alongside the sciatic nerve from the femur to the buttocks, then ventures further down on its own along the knee and behind the fibula. The nerve then splits inside the neck of the fibula into the deep peroneal and superficial peroneal
Dendrites threadlike fibers that bring information away to the cell body
Digital Extends into the fingers of the hand
Enzymes assists in breaking down food
Facial Nerve Emerges from the brain at the lower pat of the ear and is the primary motor nerve of the face; also known as the seventh cranial nerve
Greater Auricular Extends into the side of the neck and external ear
Greater Occipital Extends up the back of the scalp to the top of the head
Infraorbital Extends to the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip and mouth
Infratrochlear Emerges on skin of the upper eyelid and side of the nose
Kidney receives urea from liver and passes urea through nephrons
Lesser Occipital Extends into the muscles at the back of the skull
Lungs spongy organs composed of cells into which air enters when you inhale
mandibular nerve the main nerve branch to the lower 1/3 of the face
marginal mandibular Extends to the muscles of the chin and lower lip
maxillary nerve branch the main nerve branch to the middle 1/3 of the face
median Extends into the fingers of the hand
mental Extends to the lower lip and chin
motor nerves efferent nerves; carry messages from the brain to the muscles
nasal Extends to the tip and lower side of the nose
nerve cell Neuron; cells with long and short threadlike fibers called axons; responsible for sending messages in the form of nerve impulses
nerve tissue Carries messages to and from the brain and coordinates body functions
Nervous system Coordinates and controls the overall operation of the human body
Neuron nerve cell; responsible for sending messages in the form of nerve impulses
Neuroscience The study of the nervous system
peripheral nervous system The study of the nervous system
peristalsis twisting and turning motion of the esophagus
posterior auricular Extends to the muscles behind and below the ear
radial Extends down the thumb side of the arm into the back of the hand
receptors sensory nerve endings that send sensory messages to the brain for processing
reflex action Action caused by interaction of sensory and motor nerves
sciatic Begins in the lower back and runs through the buttock and down the lower limb
sensory nerves Also called afferent nerves; carry messages to the brain and spinal cord; determine the sense of touch, sight, smell, hearing and taste.
Skin the body’s largest organ
small intestine receives partially digested food from the stomach
spinal cord Composed of long nerve fibers; originates in the base of the brain and extends to the base of the spine; holds 31 pairs of spinal nerves that branch out to muscles, internal organs and skin
stomach digests food
supraorbital Extends to the skin of the upper eyelid, eyebrow, forehead and scalp
supratrochlear Extends to the skin of the upper side of the nose and between the eyes
sural Runs down the back of the leg to the outside of the foot and little toe
temporal Extends to the muscles of the temple, the side of the forehead, the eyebrow, eyelid and upper cheek
tibial Passes behind the knee and the common peroneal nerve
trifacial nerve the chief sensory nerve primarily responsible for transmitting facial sensations to the brain and for controlling the motor nerve function of chewing
ulnar Extends down the little-finger side of the arm into the palm of the hand
urea waste product and major component of urine
villi fingerlike projections of the intestine walls
zygomatic Extends to the side of the forehead, temple and upper part of the cheek



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