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Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1

Integumentary Covers the body and protects it (skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands)
Skeletal Protects the body and provides support for locomotion and movement (bones, cartilage, and ligaments)
Nervous Receives stimuli, integrates information, and coordinates the body functions (brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs)
Endocrine Chemically coordinates and integrates the activities of the body (pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, and other ductless glands)
Muscular Permits the body movement (skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle)
Digestive Digests food and absorbs soluble nutrients from indigested food (teeth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, and pancreas)
Respiratory Collects oxygen and exchanges it for carbon dioxide (lungs, pharynx, trachea, and other air passages)
Circulatory Transports cells and materials throughout the body (heart, blood vessels, blood, and lymph structures)
Immune Removes foreign chemicals and microorganisms from the bloodstream (T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, and macrophages; lymph structures)
Urinary Removes metabolic wastes from the bloodstream (kidney, bladder, and associated ducts)
Reproductive Produces sex cells for the next generation (testes, ovaries, and associated reproductive structures)
Medial Middle of body
Lateral Sides of body
Distal Away from middle (hands, feet)
Ventral (anterior) Front of body
Dorsal (posterior) Back of body
Proximal In between (thighs, shoulders)
Superior (cranial, cephalic) Top of body (neck, head)
Inferior (caudal) Bottom of body (below the waist)
Ipsilateral On the same side of the body
Contralateral On the opposite side of the body
Superficial Toward the surface of the body
Deep Away from the surface of the body
Sagittal plane Verticle plane dividing the body into right and left sides
Midsagittal plane Divides the body into equal right and left halves
Parasagittal plane divides the body into unequal right and left halves
Frontal (coronal) plane Verticle plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions
Transverse (horizontal) plane divides the body into superior and inferior portions
Dorsal Body Cavity located along the posterior (dorsal) surface of the body. Subdivided into the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity.
Cranial Cavity houses the brain
Spinal Cavity Houses the spinal cord
Ventral Body Cavity located on the anterior (ventral) aspect of the body. Subdivided into the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity.
Thoracic Cavity surrounded by ribs and muscles of the chest an is further subdivided into the left and right pleural cavities, each having a lung. Also has the pericardial cavity which is medial to the pleural cavities.
Mediastinum part of the pericardial cavity. Includes all contents of the thoracic cavity expect the lungs (heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, bronchi and many blood and lymphatic vessels)
Abdominopelvic Cavity (peritoneal cavity) Separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm. Includes visceral organs of the abdomen and pelvis.
Abdominal Subdivision Stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs.
Pelvic Subdivision Bladder, certain reproductive organs and the rectum.
Umbilical Region Center of abdomen
Epigastric Region immediately superior to the umbilical region
Hypogastric Region immediately inferior to the umbilical region
Hypochondriac Regions (left and right) Lateral to the epigastric region
Lumbar Regions (left and right) lateral to the umbilical region
Inguinal (iliac) Regions (left and right) lateral to the hypogastric region
Serous Membrane covers the walls of the ventral body cavity
Serous Fluid permits the organs to slide easily across cavity walls and by one another without causing friction.
Pleura Membrane lines the pleural cavities
Pericardium Membrane lines the heart
Peritoneum Membrane surrounds some abdominopelvic organs and covers parts of others
Parietal Layer lines a cavity
Visceral Layer covers an organ
Created by: brandydenton



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