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bourgeoisie well-educated, prosperous, middle-class groups.
checks and balances the idea that in government the executive, legislative and judicial branches would systematically balance each other and that the government would be checked by the power of the individual states.
classical liberalism exemplified by the American Constitution and the Bill of Rights, liberty meant individual freedoms, and political safeguards, equality meant equality before the law, not equality of political participation or wealth.
constitutional monarchy a monarchy were the king remains head of state but all lawmaking power goes to the hands of another governing body such as the National Assembly. (p. 704)estates – orders, the way in which France’s inhabitants were legally divided – the clergy, the nobi
family monarchy a monarchy where the power of the husband and father was as absolute over the wife and the children as that of Napoleon over his subjects.
Girondists a group contesting control of the National Convention in France named after a department in southwestern France
Great Fear the fear of vagabonds and outlaws that seized the countryside and fanned the flames of rebellion.
Jacobins in Revolutionary France, a political club whose members were a radical republican group.
liberty and equality the two ideas that fuelled the revolutionary period in both America and Europe.
manorial rights privileges of lordship that allowed them to tax the peasantry for their own profit.
nationalism French nationalism exploded with a common language and tradition reinforced by the idea of popular sovereignty and democracy as the French were stirred by a common loyalty.
planned economy a plan created by Robespierre and his coworkers that involved the government in the economy - the government would set maximum allowable prices for key products rather than letting supply and demand determine prices.
Reign of Terror (1793-1794) Robespierre used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front, in special courts rebels and “enemies of the nation” were tried for political crimes.
representative government this did not mean democracy, rather it was voting for representatives as being restricted to those who owned property.
sans-culottes the name for the laboring poor and the petty traders.
second revolution a phase when the fall of the French monarchy marked a rapid radicalization of the Revolution.
sovereignty the idea that people alone had the authority to make laws limited an individual’s freedom of action, in practice this system of government meant choosing legislators who represented the people and were accountable to them.
the Mountain a group contesting control of the National Convention in France led by Robespierre and Georges Jaques Danton.
Thermidorian reaction a reaction to the Reign of Terror where middle class professionals reasserted their authority.
Created by: mcdougcf