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Anatomy final

Study Guide

QuestionAnswer
An organ is one organizational level higher than a(n): tissue
A plane through the body that divides the body into right and left sides is called: sagittal
If your reference point is “farthest from the trunk of the body” versus “nearest to the trunk of the body,” where does the knee lie in relation to the ankle? Proximal
The mediastinum contains all of the following except the right lung
What is the anatomical direction term that means nearer the surface? Superficial
The gallbladder lies in the: abdominal cavity.
The reproductive system includes all of the following except the: ureter
Two major cavities of the human body are ventral/dorsal.
The number of abdominal regions is 9
An x-ray technician has been asked to make x-ray films of the liver. Which of the abdominopelvic regions must be included An x-ray technician has been asked to make x-ray films of the liver. Which of the abdominopelvic regions must be included
In the presence of a base, red litmus paper will: turn blue.
Which of the following elements is least likely to combine with another element? Helium
Which of the following is not one of the major elements present in the human body? Zinc
Atomic mass is determined by the number of: protons and neutrons.
The atomic number of carbon is 6. How many unpaired electrons are in its outer shell? 4
The kind of element is determined by the number of: protons
An ionic bond is formed by: a positive and a negative ion attracting each other.
As the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) increases, the: solution becomes more acidic
A solution that contains a greater concentration of hydroxide ions (OH–) than hydrogen ions (H+) is a(n) _____ solution. alkaline (basic)
AB + CD → AD + CB is an example of a(n) _____ reaction exchange
The barrier function of the plasma membrane is accomplished by the phospholipid bilayer
The presence of which substance in the cell membrane keeps it from breaking too easily? Cholesterol
Which of the following organelles is considered a nonmembranous organelle? Ribosome
Damage to the centrosome and centrioles in a cell would have the greatest impact on which cell function? Cell division
Which organelles consist of vesicles that have pinched off from the Golgi apparatus? Lysosomes
A specialized cell structure that propels the sperm is the: flagellum
Which cell extension lacks a central pair of microtubules, is not found in blood cells, and functions in the kidney to monitor urine flow? Primary cilium
Main cell structures include all of the following except: interstitial fluid.
Projections from the cell that move materials and mucus are called: cilia
Granules or threads within the nucleus are called: chromatin
Adipose tissue is a storage tissue.
The structure that lies deep to the dermis and forms a connection between the skin and the underlying structures of the body is the hypodermis
The dermis is composed of two layers, a thin papillary layer and a thick _____ layer reticular
The tip of the nose and the external ear are composed of elastic cartilage
The conducting unit of the nerve tissue is the neuron
Which of the following contains osteocytes? bone
The epidermis is composed of several types of epithelial cells. One type, called keratinocytes, become filled with a tough, fibrous protein called keratin
The basic determinant of skin color is melanin
Which principal type of tissue covers and protects body surfaces and lines body cavities? epithelial
The two major categories of body membranes are epithelial and connective.
Which of the following is not a bone in the skull? clavicle
Which of the following is(are) not in the appendicular skeleton? vertebrae
Cartilage is classified as _____ tissue. connective
Which of these pelvic bones is the most anteriorly placed? pubis
The vertebral bones that support the small (lower section) of the back are the lumbar vertebrae.
Which bone is the longest and heaviest bone in the body? femur
Of the five metacarpal bones that form the framework of the hand, the _____ metacarpal forms the most freely movable joint with the carpal bones. thumb
The joint between the pubic portions of each coxal bone is the pubic symphysis.
Which lower leg bone is smaller and is located laterally? fibula
The human skeleton system consists of two divisions. They are axial and appendicular.
The action of the brachialis muscle is to _____ the forearm. flex
Which of the following statements about the muscles of the thorax is incorrect? When the diaphragm contracts, it decreases the volume of the thoracic cavity and expels air from the lungs.
The covering of individual muscle fibers is the: endomysium
Which of the following is not a posterior muscle that acts on the shoulder girdle? Pectoralis minor
Muscles may be named according to: function. direction of fibers. points of attachment. all of the above.
When an athlete injures a muscle of the hamstring group, the injury is on the: : posterior thigh
The muscle that allows the thumb to be drawn across the palm to touch the tip of any finger is the opponens pollicis.
Moving from superficial to deep, the connective tissue components would be: epimysium, perimysium, endomysium.
Which of the following muscles does not move the upper arm? Trapezius
In pushing (pressing) a weight from shoulder height to above the head, which of the following muscles is least utilized? Biceps brachii
The white matter of the nervous system is made up of: myelinated fibers.
Fascicles are held together by a connective tissue layer called the: perineurium
The efferent pathways of the autonomic nervous system consist of the ________ nervous systems. . sympathetic and parasympathetic
Which is not true of the myelin sheath? It covers cell bodies in the brain and spinal cord.
Multipolar neurons have: multiple dendrites and one axon.
In the human nervous system: most of the cells are glia cells.
The nervous system is organized to do which of the following? Detect changes in the external environment. Detect changes in the internal environment. Evaluate changes in the environment. All of the above are true.
Astrocytes attach to: neurons. blood vessels.
The afferent pathways of the autonomic nervous system: : carry feedback information to integrating centers in the brain.
One of the components of the blood-brain barrier is: astrocytes
Which part of the brain releases the hormone melatonin? Pineal gland
The brain has _____ major divisions 6
Visceral effectors are innervated by sympathetic fibers. T/F TRUE
“Fight-or-flight” physiological changes include all of the following except: constriction of respiratory airways.
Spinal nerves are _____ fibers motor and sensory
If you were to damage some of the preganglionic fibers that enter the celiac ganglion, what effect would this have on sympathetic stimulation? ? Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla may not reach the various sympathetic effectors, thus delaying the effects of sympathetic stimulation.
Cerebrospinal fluid is found in all of the following except the; subdural space
The main divisions of the central nervous system are the: brain and spinal cord.
Axon terminals that secrete acetylcholine are called cholinergic terminals. T/F TRUE
The areas specializing in language functions are found in the left cerebral hemisphere in 90%
Gustatory cells are located in all of the following areas except on the apical surface of vallate papillae on the tongue.
Membrane attached to the stapes. . oval window
Largest purely endocrine gland in the body. thyroid gland
Endolymph-filled structure containing receptors for hearing. cochlear duct
The hormone produced by the heart increases the excretion of sodium in the urine.
Which of the following endocrine glands develops primarily from the endoderm of the pharynx? thyroid and parathyroids
Which of the following areas has the highest concentration of cones? the fovea centralis
Transparent mucous membrane covering the inner surface of the eyelid. . Conjunctiva
The hypophyseal portal veins are primarily located in the infundibulum
Bony labyrinth structure containing the utricle and saccule vestibule
Renal veins drain blood from the kidneys
During fetal circulation, what opening in the septum, between the right and left atria, directs most of the blood so that it bypasses the fetal lungs? foramen ovale
Atria are often called _____ because they receive blood from vessels called veins. receiving chambers
Which sphincters function as regulatory valves that reduce the flow of blood through a network of capillaries when they contract and constrict the arterioles? precapillary sphincters
All of the following are granulocytes except lymphocytes.
_____ is used to determine the volume percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. Hematocrit
After blood leaves the lungs and returns to the heart, it enters the left atrium.
The type of membranous tissue that lines the heart and blood vessels is the endothelium
From which vessels do myocardial cells receive blood? coronary arteries
Mechanical devices that permit the flow of blood in one direction only are called valves
Adaptive immunity, part of the body’s third line of defense, is orchestrated by two different classes of a type of white blood cell called the lymphocyte
Activities that result in central movement or flow of lymph are called lymphokinetic activities
Which of these substances operate(s) immune mechanisms? Sebum , mucus, enzymes, hydrochloric acid in gastric mucosa. all of the above
The functions of the lymph nodes are defense and hematopoiesis.
Which antibody is synthesized by immature B cells and then inserted into their plasma membranes? immunoglobulin M
The ingestion and destruction of microorganisms or other small particles is called phagocytosis
The internal environment of the human body is protected by the _____, which is(are) referred to as the first line of defense. SKIN
A tumor of the lymphoid tissue is called lymphoma
The lymphatic system serves various functions in the body. The two most important functions of this system are fluid balance and immunity.
Lymphatics in the villi of the small intestines are called
The small openings in the cribriform plate function to: allow branches of the olfactory nerve to enter the cranial cavity and reach the brain.
The structures that deflect air as it passes through the nose are called: conchae
The more common name for the pharynx is the throat
The smallest branches of the bronchial tree are bronchioles
The anatomical division of the pharynx that is located behind the mouth from the soft palate above to the level of the hyoid bone below is called the: oropharynx
The external openings to the nasal cavities can be referred to as: nostrils. anterior nares. external nares. all of the above.
The lower border of the cavity of the larynx is formed by the: cricoid cartilage
Which of the following does not distribute air? Alveolus
Which of the following is not a function of the pharynx? ? Determines the quality of the voice
The hollow nasal cavity is separated by a midline partition called the: septum
Which of the following is not an anatomical part of the small intestine? Cecum
Bile is secreted by: : hepatic cells
The type of tissue designed for absorption and secretion found throughout much of the GI tract is _____ epithelium. simple columnar
The walls of the GI tract are composed of ____ layers of tissue 4
Which of the following papillae of the tongue lack taste buds? Filiform
Microvilli can be found in the small intestine. large intestine
The substance that forms the outer covering of the neck and root of a tooth is: cementum
A barium enema study is used to detect and locate: polyps. tumors. diverticula. all of the above.
The right angle between the transverse colon and the ascending colon is the: hepatic flexure.
Which of the following salivary glands produces only a mucus type of saliva? Sublinguals
The portion of the nephron tubule that is essentially always impermeable to water is the: ascending nephron loop.
Approximately how much blood flows through the kidneys per minute? 1200 ml
Substances travel from the glomerulus into the glomerular capsule by the process of:. filtration
The calyces of the kidney join together to form a large collection reservoir called the: renal pelvis.
The mechanism for voiding begins with: the relaxation of the internal sphincter.
The normal osmotic pressure of the capsular filtrate is _____ mm Hg 0
Which of the following is not a normal function of the kidneys? Regulate blood sugar
Which hormone tends to decrease the amount of urine produced? Aldosterone and ADH Aldosterone and ADH
Reabsorption, as performed in the kidney, may be defined as the: movement of molecules out of the tubule and into the peritubular blood.
One difference between the male urethra and the female urethra is the male urethra is: part of two different body systems.
Mechanical support and protection for developing germ cells in the testis are provided by: Sertoli cells. Sertoli cells.
In the male reproductive system, the essential organs of reproduction are called : testes.
The region between the vaginal orifice and the anus is called the; perineum. perineum.
Which of the following is not true concerning the uterus? It produces estrogen
In the male, LH: stimulates the interstitial cells to increase their secretion of testosterone.
The greater vestibular glands are also called _____ glands. Bartholin
The fundus of the uterus is the: area above where the tubes enter.
Which of the following is not a supporting structure of the male reproductive system? Prostate
The supporting structures in the male reproductive system include: the penis. a pair of spermatic cords. the scrotum. all of the above.
Created by: akielas
 

 



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