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Anatomy & Physiology

Weeks 7-13

The first event to occur when an adequate stimulus is applied to a neuron is: Some of the sodium channels at the point of stimulation open.
The neurotransmitter(s) that inhibit(s) the conduction of pain impulses is(are): Enkephalins.
When an impulse reaches a synapse: Chemical transmitters are released.
A synaptic knob would be located on a(n): Axon
The only ion(s) that can diffuse across a neuron’s membrane when the neuron is at rest is (are): Potassium.
Which neuron could transmit a nerve impulse the fastest? A large-diameter neuron with myelin
The fastest nerve fibers in the body can conduct impulses up to approximately _____ meters per second. 130
The vomiting reflex is mediated by the: Medulla
True or False: The preganglionic neurons of both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions are cholinergic. True
Nerves that innervate the floor of the pelvic cavity and some of the surrounding areas are found in the _____ plexus. Coccygeal
Impulses from the _____ play a part in arousing or alerting the cerebrum. Thalamus
Damage to the _____ nerve could make the diaphragm unable to function. Phrenic
If the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal nerve were destroyed, a person would lose _____ related to that pathway. Both reflex activity and sensation
A child was frightened by a large dog. The pupils of the child’s eyes became dilated, and the heart and respiratory rates increased. These symptoms were caused by stimulation of: The sympathetic nervous system.
Nerve impulses over the _____ nerve cause increased peristalsis and decreased heart rate. Vagus
Sensory impulses ending in what part of the CNS trigger imprecise or “crude” sensation awareness? Thalamus
The receptors responsible for sensing crude and persistent touch are the: Ruffini corpuscles.
What is progesterone? Major hormone produced by the corpus luteum
When you are looking at a large green field, which cones would be sending the green wavelength to the brain? Answer: M
When a small amount of one hormone allows a second hormone to have its full effect, the phenomenon is called: Permissiveness.
The production of thyroid hormone is stimulated by another hormone from the: Anterior pituitary.
One of the few hormones that functions on a positive-feedback loop is: Oxytocin
All of the following are nonsteroid hormones except: A. Oxytocin. B. Calcitonin. C. Cortisol. D. Glucagon. Answer: C
Endolymph. The clear and potassium-rich fluid that fills the labyrinth
The olfactory tract carries impulses associated with: Smell
The term blood type refers to the type of blood cell Antigen
The heart begins beating in the fetus at about what stage of development? After 4 weeks
Neutrophils are highly mobile and phagocytic. They migrate out of blood vessels and into tissue spaces. This process is called Diapedesis
Blood viscosity stems mainly from the red blood cells but also partly from the _____ in blood. Protein molecules present
The mechanisms of which three hormones work together to regulate blood volume? Aldosterone, ANH, and ADH
_____ is used to determine the volume percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. Hematocrit
Factors that affect the strength of myocardial contraction are called Inotropic factors.
The physiological mechanism that dissolves clots is known as Fibrinolysis.
A glycoprotein hormone that is secreted to increase oxygen concentration in the tissues is Erythropoietin.
Adaptive immunity, part of the body’s third line of defense, is orchestrated by two different classes of a type of white blood cell called the lymphocyte.
Because T cells attack pathogens more directly, T-cell immune mechanisms are classified as _____ immunity. Cell-mediated
The functions of the lymph nodes are Defense and hematopoiesis.
During their residence in the thymus, pre-T cells develop into _____, cells that proliferate as rapidly as any in the body. Thymocytes
Which of the following is a powerful poison that acts directly on any cell and quickly kills it? A. cytotoxin B. phagotoxin C. lymphotoxin D. granulotoxin Answer: C
The primary organ of the lymphatic system is the Thymus
The presentation of an antigen by an antigen-presenting cell activates the T cell. The cell then divides repeatedly to form a clone of identical sensitized T cells that form Effector T cells and memory cells.
By the time the blood leaves the lung capillaries to return to the heart, what percentage of the blood’s hemoglobin has united with oxygen? 97%
About 98.5% of the oxygen carried by systemic arterial blood is attached to: Hemoglobin.
The vital capacity is equal to the sum of the: Inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume.
The symbol HbNCOOH– is used for: Carbaminohemoglobin.
If the tidal volume of a given individual is 500 ml, then the anatomical dead space is approximately _____ ml. 150
The approximate partial pressure of oxygen at standard atmospheric pressure is about _____ mm Hg. 160
Which type of breathing is characterized by repeated sequences of deep gasps and apnea, and is usually seen in people with increased intracranial pressure? Biot’s breathing
If a person were skiing high up in the mountains, she might feel that she is having trouble breathing (getting enough oxygen in her blood). This is because the: Lower atmospheric pressure lowers the PO2 and the diffusion gradient between the blood and the atmosphere is less.
Excessive fluid in the pleural cavity would be most likely to cause: Decreased vital capacity.
Standard atmospheric pressure is _____ mm Hg. 760
Cellulose is a residue of digestion that comes from: Carbohydrates
Rotavirus can cause what life-threatening condition in infants? Diarrhea
Which blood vessel carries absorbed food from the GI tract to the liver? Portal vein
Which of the following is not one of the openings that must be blocked when food moves from the pharynx into the esophagus? Oropharynx
The major site for the absorption of the end products of digestion is the: Small intestines
Glucose moves from the GI tract into the circulatory system by the process of: Cotransport.
The enterogastric reflex causes: Inhibition of gastric peristalsis
Which phase(s) of gastric secretion is(are) stimulated by the sight, taste, and smell of food? A. Intestinal phase B. Cephalic phase C. Gastric phase D. All of the above Answer: B
Created by: Monica0278



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