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DNA and Mutations

What is the shape of DNA? double helix
What is the backbone/sides of DNA made of? alternating sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphates
What are the rungs of DNA made of? "pairs of bases (A
What is the base pair rule? A pairs with T; C pairs with G
What is the DNA subunit (preAP only)? "a nucleotide - it's made of a single base
What are proteins? "'worker' molecules in your body (hormomes
What is a codon? a DNA or RNA 'word' that is 3 nitrogen bases; gives info for 1 amino acid
what is a genetic mutation? a change in the DNA sequence
What happens in DNA replication? The DNA molecule goes through a copying process to make two identical DNA molecules.
What happens to the orginal DNA molecule during replication? Each half/strand of it is used to make each new DNA molecule.
What molecule copies the DNA sequence and takes it to the ribosomes? messenger RNA (mRNA)
What is a gene mutation? a change in the DNA sequence of one gene.
Examples of genetic disorders caused by gene mutations "sickle cell anemia
What is a chromosome mutation? "Change in structure/number of chromosomes. Nondisjunction is when centromeres fail to separate in meisosis
What is an example of a chromosome mutation that results in a genetic disorder? down's syndrome is a genetic disorder in which a person has 3 copies of chromosome 21
What structure reads mRNA and assembles amino acids in the correct order? ribosome
RNA is a ____ helix. What does the 'R' stand for? It's a single helix. R is for ribose. DNA has deoxyribose for it's sugar.
What are the bases of RNA? "it has a U (uracil)
How else is RNA different than DNA? it's shorter and can leave the nucleus.
Genetic mutations can be ________ "helpful
What has to happen for a genetic mutation to be passed on to offspring? "They have to occur in your gametes (sperm/egg cells). If a skin cell
what is a genetic disorder? an abnormal condition that an organism inherits from their parents.
What are proteins made of? chains of amino acids (20 kinds)
What types of gene mutations are there? "substitution
What happens in a substitution mutation? "one base switches for another; one amino acid can change
What happens in an insertion? one or more bases are added to the sequence; can alter every amino acids after the point; protein is too messed up to do its job.
What happens in a deletion? one or more bases are removed from the sequence; can alter every amino acids after the point; protein is too messed up to do its job.
When will there be a frameshift? "A frameshift happens when an insertion or deletion occurs
Created by: doakes27