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WVSOM - Genetics

WVSOM -- Nucleic Acid Structure

Basic Dogma DNA -> RNA -> Protein
Molecular Biology elucidation of biological principles with the use of nucleic acids
Nucleic Acid Nucleotides polymerized by phosphodiester bonds
DNA double stranded polymers of deoxyribonucleotides
RNA single stranded polymers of unmodified nucleotides
Chromosome single molecule of DNA, often millions of base pairs long. Encode most of a cell's genes
gene entire DNA sequence controlling a specific trait, usually by encoding a polypeptide or functional RNA
Ribose 5 carbon sugar that constitutes the central moiety of mucleotides
Ribose carbons important for polymerization 3' and 5'
Bases side groups of nucleotides attached to teh 1' carbon of ribose
5 bases cytosine urasil thymine guanine adenine
Pyridimine base with one ring cytosine, uracil or thymine
purine nucleotide with a base with 2 rings adenine or quanine
nucleoside base attached to 1' carbon of ribose without a phosphorylated 5' end
nucleotide nucleic acid subunit consisting of ribose with a 5' phoshporylated carbon, and base bound to th 1' carbon
Deoxynucleotide modified nucleotide that lacks the 2' hydroxyl group of its ribose moiety Used to produce DNA
Subunits of nucleic acids are produced by linking them together with ______________ bonds. phosphodiester
What carbons are bonded betweens the nucleic acids 3' hydroxyl group of one nucleotide and the 5' phosphate of an incoming nucleotide
Subunits of nucleic acids are produced by linking them together with ______________ bonds. phosphodiester
What carbons are bonded betweens the nucleic acids 3' hydroxyl group of one nucleotide and the 5' phosphate of an incoming nucleotide
What direction does nucleotide polymerization occur? 5' -> 3'
Distinctions between RNA and DNA 1) DNA lacks 2' Hydroxyls 2) DNA has Thymidine, RNA uses Uridine 3) DNA is much larger than RNA 4) DNA forms double helices 5) DNA is methylated
DNA length millions of base pairs long
RNA length ~50 - 40000 nucleotides long
Why is DNA methylated? so that RNAase does not recognize it and degrade it
Annealing or reannealing to allow denatured DNA strands to reform double helices done by heading solution and cooling SLOWLY
Base pairs in double helix are held together by hydrogen bonds
Complimentary two strands to have matching, mirror image sequences, so tha every A of one strand is paired with a T of the otehr.
Antiparallel the two strands of teh double helix are in opposit, 5' - 3' orientation
denaturing, deannealing or melting DNA for double helices to dissociate into single strands due to adverse conditions such as elevated temperature
Hybridizaiont 2 strands from different sources to anneal
Antisense RNA RNA with a sequence complimentary to a DAN or RNA. Antisense RNA will form a double helix
Charge of DNA and RNA Negatively charged acids
Major groove wide space in the ribbon model
Minor groove narrow span
Alternate conformations of DNA B DNA A DNA Z DNA Triple-helical DNA
B DNA normal double helix
A DNA more compact than B DNA with more tilt to the base pairs
Z DNA left handed double helix, characteristic of regions. may be involved in repression
Triple Helical DNA forms between two polypyrimidine and one polypurine strands. totally test tube
Created by: tjamrose
Popular Genetics sets




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