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WVSOM -- Genetics

WVSOM -- Protein Transcription

Two strategies for generating an abundance of rRNA Includes multiple copies of rRNA genes Multiple transcripts to be simultaneously produced from each gene.
Oscar Miller feathers Multiple transcripts look like the barbs of a feather
Nucleolus Region of a nucleus where ribosomes are produced. NOT a membrane bound organelle.
Each gene encodes how many rRNAs? 3
What transcribes rRNA Pol I
Pre-rRNA One large RNA molecule transcribed by Pol I
What transcribes a fourth rRNA? A separate 5SrRNA gene.
What transcribes the fourth rRNA? Pol III
Ribonucleoproteins Proteins that assemble around the rRNA to form the large and small subunits of ribosomes.
What composes ribosomes? RNA and protein
What are the post transcriptional modifications of tRNA? Intron splicing Nucleotide addition Methylation Modifications to produce unusual nucleotides
How many loops do tRNA have? 3
What are the 3 loops of tRNA? D loop Anticodon Loop TψCG Loop
Folding of tRNA Internal annealing folds tRNA into “clover leaves”
What genes make up the small subunit? 18S
What genes make up the large subunit? 5.8S, 5S, 28S
What is the secondary fold of tRNA? The D and TψCG Loops fold back on each other to generate an L shaped structure
Unique properties of RNA polymerase I and Pol III promoters Unlike Pol II, promoters for rR?NA and tR?NA lack TATA boxes
Where are mRNA, tRNA and ribosomes produced? Nucleus
Where does translation occur? cytoplasm
How do components get imported and exported from the nucleus? nuclear pore complexes
What are nuclear pore complexes? channels embedded in the nuclear envelope.
How many different proteins make up nuclear pore complexes? 30
What are the proteins that make up nuclear pore complexes called? nucleoporins
What mediates transport of factors into or out of the nucleus? importins and exportins
What happens to tRNA when it gets to cytoplasm? It becomes charged
Are tRNA ready for translation in the nucleus? Why? No. They must be charged in the cytoplasm
What enzyme charges tRNA? aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
What makes tRNA charged? Binding to an amino acid
Where does tRNA bind to amino acids? 3' OH of tRNA binds with carboxyl group of the amino acid.
Does charging of tRNA require ATP? yes
Can amino acids be bound to several tRNAs? yes
Can tRNAs be bound to different amino acids? NO. Only one tRNA can be bound to an amino acid.
How can the cell use only four nucleotides to code for twenty different amino acids? Every 3 bases in mRNA codes for a different amino acid.
Codon a nucleotide triplet that specifies a particular amino acid
Characteristics of the Genetic Code (7) Triplet unambiguous Degenerate Wobble Colinear Non-overlapping Universal
Triplet every three bases of mRNA sequence, read 5' - 3'
Unambiguous codons only specify one amino acid
Wobble The thrid base of codons that specify the same amino acid varies. The first two are usually identical
What is the start cdon? AUG
What amino acid is the start codon Methionine codon
All polypeptides begin with Methionine (Met) Codon
What does the ribosome look for when it grabs mRNA? It reads down the length in the 5' - 3' direction looking for the AUG triplet. It begins to add amino acids to teh grwoing polypeptide chain at this point.
Stop codons UAA UAG UGA
When will the ribosome stop growing the polypeptide chain? When it gets to a stop codon
Polypeptide a polymer of amino acids.
Peptide bond Carboxyl moiety of one amino acid is bound to the amino moiety of the next
Residue an amino acid in the sequence of a polypeptide
directions during translation the RNA is read 5' - 3' while the polypeptide is synthesiszed from the amino to carboxyl ends
What are the 3 stages of the translation pathway? Initiation Elongation Release
Initiation stage Ribosomes are assembled with an mRNA between the large and small subunits, along with the first aminoacyl tRNA (Met). This tRNA is bound to the P site of teh ribosome.
Elongation Stage Addition of amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain
Peptidyl site P site. a region of the ribosome that binds the tRNA that is attached to the growing polypeptide
Aminoacyl site A site. a region of the ribosome that binds that aminoacyl tRNA for the next amino acid to be bound to teh growing polypeptide.
Release Stage the completed polypeptide, mRNA and both ribosomal subunits all come apart
What is protein sorting? proteins are targeted to specific cellular compartments such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, peroxisomes or rER
5 Principle types of Post translational modification disulfide bond formation glycosylation cleavage polypeptide forlding multisubunit assembly
Where does Post translational modification occur? ER
What is glycosylation? addition of carbohydrate side chains
Where does glycosylation occur? Golgi
Where does cleavage occur? Golgi and vesicles
What mediates proper folding? helper protiens known as chaperons
Created by: tjamrose