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WVSOM Class of 2012 Cytoskeleton

cytoskeleton fibers from smallest to largest? microfilaments, intermediate fibers, microtubules
which of the cytoskeleton fibers are not motile? intermediate filament
energy for microfilament polymerization comes from? what about microtubules? ATP, GTP
components of microfilaments? microtubules? intermediate fibers? actin and myosin; tubulin; keratins and nuclear lamins
function of cytoskeletal bundles? networks? anchoring? resilience against stretching; reslience against stretching and compression; anchoring the cytoskeleton via plaques and junctions
motor proteins do what (motility) ? hydrolyze ATP to crawl along filaments
polymerization-depolymerization does what (motility) ? increase or decrease filament length to induce pushing or pulling force
the most abundant intracellular protein is what? actin
g-actin subunits become what? how? f-actin filaments; ATP hydrolysis
rope-like alpha helices that wrap around f-actin? tropomyocin
regulatory subunits binding tropomyosin and actin? troponins c, t, and i
actin crosslinking protein that forms networks in RBC's? spectrin
this crosslinking protein forms striated muscle networks? dystrophin
these microfilaments serve as motor proteins for actin? myosins
long bundles of microfilaments along basal surface of fibroblasts that have attached to a substratum, providing tension across a surface? stress fibers
energy for assembly of microtubules come from what? beta GTP hydrolysis
microtubule assembly process occurs more at which end? positive end
alpha and beta tubulins bind each other to form what? dimers
globular proteins that make up microtubules are what? tubulins (alpha and beta)
how many rows of tubulins per microtubule? 13
rows of tubulins are called what? protofilament
Chemicals that interfere with microtubular assembly preferentially attack tumor cells because these rapidly dividing cells require microtubules for cell cycle progression. This is called what? chemotherapy
crosslinking proteins in microtubules are called what? microtuubule associated proteins
microtubule motor proteins are what 2? Dynein and Kinesin
what is the function of dynein? moves flagella, cilia, cytosolic vesicles and bipartites associating with the mitotic spindle; it also moves vesicles, organelles and cytoskeletal fragments up and down axons
what is the function of kinesin? moves cytosolic vesicles and bipartites associating with the mitotic spindle
examples of Microtubular Mediated Motility? Intracellular membrane trafficking, Axonal Transport, flagella and cilia (cilia number in the thousands per sructure)
what is the arrangement of microtubules within flagella and cilia? 9 + 2 rule
these objects between the doublets create the motor force with ATP hydrolysis: dynein arms
from cell body to a synapse is called? anterograde transport
from synapse to cell body is called? Retrograde transport
A structure similar to a centriole at the base of an individual flagellum or cilium basal body
what is the function of the cortical net inside the basal body? believed to serve as nucleation centers for flagella and cilia outgrowth, they coordinate beating of cilia
3 types of microtubules in mitotic apparatus? polar, kinetochore, and astral
outer ends of astral MT are what charge? inner end? positive, negative
spindle shaped complexes of microtubules, which serve to separate daughter chromosomes during mitosis: mitotic spindle
An area at each end of the spindle where the microtubules converge? aster
A protein structure joining centromeres to the microtubules of the spindle? kinetochore
during anaphase, what happens to the microtubules? Chromatids are pulled to opposite poles of the spindle by depolymerization of microtubules at their + ends
a small organelle consisting of a perpendicular pair of centrioles surrounded by a matrix of two proteins: centrosome
the core of a centrosome, consisting of 9 microtubular triplets, but not including the surrounding protein matrix: centrioles
All intermediate filaments consist of alpha helical cores with similar sequences. These are what? gene family
a major structural component of epithelial cells. Hair and nails consist of dead epithelial cells, mostly composed of this element: keratins
this links Z disks of striated muscle sarcomeres to each other and to the plasma membrane: desmin
two major distinctions between the assembly of intermediate filaments and that of microfilaments or microtubules? no ATP or GTP is hydrolyzed; due to the antiparallel association of the tetramers there is no polarity
intermediate filament crosslinking occurs using what structures? intermediate filament associated proteins (IFAP) and ankyrin
what is the function of ankyrin? an IFAP that anchors desmin to the plasma membrane, as well as spectrin to the band 3 anion transporter of erythrocytes
On the nucleoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope there is a meshwork of intermediate filaments known as the: nuclear lamina
the intermediate filaments are entirely what function? structural
3 examples of intermediate filaments are: keratins, nuclear lamins, and desmins
these are used to identify the origin of tumor cells, which often lose other distinguishing characteristics: intermediate filament antibodies
3 parts of nuclear lamina? globular heads, alpha helical cores and tails
which lamin remains bound to the vesicles? B
generally speaking what are the functions of all 3 components of the cytoskeleton? provide structure and resilience; motility for all except intermediate filaments
Factors that bind filaments together are called what? cross-linking proteins
in addition to hydrolyzing ATP and crawling along the microfilaments/microtubules, what else do motor proteins do? carry a cargo along the filament (e.g. a vesicle) or they cause two filaments to slide past each other (e.g. muscle contraction)
Finger like projections of the plasma membrane, supported by internal actin bundles: microvilli
what is the function of microvilli? increase the surface area of the plasma membrane for absorption
what is the most common myosin isoform? myosin II
myosin subunits are what structure? tetramers
myosin subunits consist of what two factors? myosin light and heavy chains
myosin heavy chains consist of what two things? tails and globular heads
two tails of myosin coil around each other to form dimers; this process uses what for energy? ATP
in the sliding filament model, contractions cause what to slide along what? actin to slide along myosin
Movement of vesicles through the intracellular membrane system is often directed along what two things? actomyosin or microtubule filaments
During telophase a ring made out of what material encircles an animal cell: actomyosin
ameboid movement is made possible by what structures? microfilaments
how are microtubules arranged with regard to polarity? β subunits face the + end, α tubulins face the - end
these structures are filled with microtubule bundles: axons
centers for the initiation of microtubule formation are called what? microtubule organizing centers (MTOC)
this structure is a combination of the spindle and asters: mitotic apparatus
when do centrosomes duplicate? during the S phase
which MT radiate from the centrosomes? astral MT
which MT extend halfway across the spindle? polar MT
which MT extend across the entire spindle from aster to aster (chromatids attache here)? kinetochore MT
Created by: mhassan

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