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WVSOM -- Genetics

WVSOM -- DNA Replication

replication DNA Synthesis
Transcription RNA synthesis
Translation protein synthesis
When in the cell cycle does DNA replication occur? S phase
Requirements for DNA replication DNA Polymerase Mg +2 Template dNTP Primer
Direction of DNA replication 5' to 3'
Complimentary characteristic of DNA replication for each A of the template strand, a T is added to teh new strand, and for each G a C is added
DNA Polymerase enzymes that replicate DNA by catalyzing nucleotide polymerization
DNA Replication Proofreading 3'-5' exonuclease activity excises mixmatches
Magnesium it is a cofactor required for replication
De Nova Strand New DNA strand
Primer free 3' OH on a previously existing strand A strand with a 3' OH is often reffered to as a primer
Bidirectional replication in both directions from central origins of replication
discontinuous lagging strand replicated in short stretches Okazaki fragments
Proofreading 3' to 5' exonuclease activity that double checks for mistakes
dNTPs Deoxyribonucleotides Building blocks of DNA All four are required for replication
complimentary Every A is paired with a T and every G with a C Matching, mirror image sequences are called complimentary sequences
How many charges do A and T have? Two specific charges
How many charges do G and C have? Three
Semiconservative One strand of a daughter chromosome is newly synthesized, the other template strand is inherited intact from teh parental chromosome
Overview of DNA Replication Initiation Extension
What is the ori? Origins of replication sequences where DNA replication begins.
What is a replicon? Region of a eukaryotic chromosome that is replicated as a unit, from one central ori.
Where does replication begin? At teh ori in teh center of a replicon and extends.
How does replication move from the replicon? Extends in both directions until it reaches the end of an adjacent replicon
What is a helicase An enzyme that unwinds DNA One of the first factors to bind to an ori
What are single stranded Binding Proteins? SSB Factors that stabilize single stranded DNA by preventing it from winding back into a double helix.
What is a DNA Replication Apparatus? a cluster of factors that assemble around helicase to replicate DNA.
What are the most important factors of DNA replication apparatus? helicase DNA Polymerase Pol alpha Beta clamp primase
Beta clamp Ring like protein that wraps aroudn DNA to stabilize the association of teh replication apparatus Required for Pol processivity Allows for greater extension
Leading Strand Replication One strand is continuously synthesized in teh normal 5' - 3' direction
DNA Polymerase enzyme that replicates the leading strand. It reads the template one base at a time incorporating complementary nucleotides, ligating their 5' phosphate to the 3' OH of the growing leading strand
Pol DNA Polymerase
Discontinuous Replication of the Lagging Strand Other strand is replicated discontinuously with okazaki fragments because the overall direction of lagging strand synthesis is in the opposite direction
Primase enzyme binds the unwound lagging strand template and transcribes a short stretch of RNA. Is a primer, providing 3' OH group required by Pol alpha
DNA polymerase alpha Pol alpha This enzyme uses the RNA primer to synthesize an okazaki fragment
How many Okazaki fragments does Pol alpha synthesize? one
How long does Pol alpha replicate the okazaki fragment? until it reaches the primer at the end of the previous fragment.
What happens to the primase when the lagging strand is released? Primase makes the next primer at th eend of the new single stranded region and the process is repeated
What is a consequence of unwinding by helicase? Supercoiling increases
What do Topoisomerase do? restores the DNA to the proper level of supercoiling
How is RNA primers removed from the lagging strand? RNAse DNA polymerase beta DNA Ligase
RNAase This enzyme digests any RNA
DNA Polymerase beta This polymerase fills in gaps in DNA. It fills in the gaps left after the RNA primers are removed. Leaves nicks in teh DNA
DNA ligase Binds any free 3' hydroxyls and 5' phosphates of DNA. It seals the nicks between the okazaki fragments left by the Pol beta.
Telomerase Reverse transcriptase Uses RNA as a template to make DNA Fills in the gap from overhang that can't be filled in by the DNA polymerase. It also extends the length of the DNA
Created by: tjamrose