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Fert, Cleave, Implnt

WVSOM Class of 2012 Fertilization, Cleaving, Implantation

fertilization takes place in what timeframe? 12-24 after ejaculation
what is the average time it takes for the ovum to reach the uterus? 3-4 days
what is the time it takes for the sperm to reach the egg in the fallopian tube? 30 minutes to 6 days
what is the phase when spermatozoa are transported up the womb for fertilization and are prepared for removal of their glycoprotein coat by plasma membranes? capacitation
where do sperm usually meet the ovum in the fallopian tube? the ampulla
what are the 3 barriers to polyspermy? the corona radiata, the zona pellucida, and the zona reaction
the corona radiata will bar sperm which have not been through what phase? capacitation
the reaction of sperm to the zona pellucida layer is called what? acrosome reaction
when sperm touch the ovum's plasma membrane, what 2 events occur? the cortical reaction first, then the zona reaction
when a sperm enters the egg, what does it become? male pronucleus
a fertilized egg is called a what? zygote
cells of the early embryo are called what? blastomeres
after the first cleavage, what is the embryo called? 2-cell embryo
after the second cleavage, what is the embryo called? 4-cell embryo
after the third cleavage, what is the embryo called? 8-cell morula
at the 8-cell morula stage, what event occurs? compaction
during compaction, what cells are segregated? inner and outer cells are segregated
what is the fate of the inner and outer cells that are segregated during compaction? they become the inner and outer cell mass
what is the 16-cell embryo called? 16-cell morula
intercellular spaces between the blastomeres coalesce to form what structure? blastocele
upon formation of the blastocele, the embryo is called what? blastocyst
the blastocyst outer layer is called what? trophoblast
the blastocyst inner layer is called what? embryoblast
to assist with implantation, the trophoblast secretes proteolytic enzymes that are induced by what? uterine mucosa
the blastocyst hatches from what structure? zona pellucida
what is the most common site of incorrect implantation? the ampulla
most ectopic pregnancies result in fetal death when? 2nd month
injection of what can terminate an ectopic pregnancy? methotrexate
implantation at the uterine internal os is called what? placenta previa
what is the most common site for abdominal preganancy? rectouterine cavity (douglas' pouch)
what are 2 infertilization methods? in vitro and intracytoplasmic injection
which method of artificial infertilization harvests secondary oocytes and fertilizes them with dilute sperm? in vitro
which method of artificial infertilization injects a single sperm into an egg? intracytoplasmic injection
after 4 cycles, primary follicles will respond to what hormone? FSH
at the start of the follicular stage, GnRH from the hypothalamus induces the pituitary gland to secrete what hormone? FSH
primary follicles' theca interna secrete what hormone? why? estrogen, induces spongy and compact uterine endometrium to contract
after the follicular cycle, what period of the menstrual cycle occurs? secretory or progestational phase
what hormone induces the secretory or progestational phase? LH
after ovulation, Graafian follicles become what? corpus luteum
corpus leuteum become what when they start producing so much progesterone that they become yellow? lutean cells
if the ovum is not fertilized in 9 days, what happens to the corpus luteum? it becomes the corpus albicans
if fertilization occurs, the trophoblast secretes what hormone? what does this hormone do? HcG, induces the corpus luteum to grow into the corpus leuteum graviditatis
increased risk of placental abruption occurs when? when progesterone production shifts from the corpus luteum to the placenta in the 4th month
upon fertilization, the secondary oocyte is released from what meiotic stage? metaphase II
after the secondary oocyte is released to complete metaphase II, what is segregated from the zygote? second polar body
the inner and outer cell masses will become what structures? inner will become the fetus, outer will become the chorion and placenta
Clusters of primordial follicles become prepared to enter the menstrual cycle when? when they differentiate into primary follicles
gnrh comes from what gland? hypothalamus
fsh comes from what gland? pituitary
Created by: mhassan
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