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Health & Nutrition

Ch. 10 Delivering the Oxygen

What is the best thing to do if you develop a respiratory infection, such as a cold, sinus infection, or bronchitis? Rest, withdraw from others, drink plenty of fluids, and take a little extra vitamin C.
Pharyngitis an inflammation of the pharynx, is commonly called a sore throat because it is recognized as pain when a person swallows, breathes, or talks.
If your sore throat, fever, and general achiness last several days, what may be the cause? You may have a bacterial infection, such as strep throat, which has severe consequences if not treated with antibiotics.
anemia (fatigue and paleness) fewer red blood cells (RBCs) than normal
abnormal bruising and bleeding fewer platelets than normal platelets: are cell fragments that help form blood clots
infection or leukemia more white blood cells (WBCs) than normal
sickle-cell anemia crescent-shaped RBCs among regular RBCs
In the respiratory system, oxygen enters the nasal cavity and proceeds through which structures (in order)? (1) pharynx (2) larynx (3) trachea (4) bronchus (5) bronchiole (6) alveolus
Which part of the respiratory system does not have cartilage? alveolus
tidal volume It is the normal volume in a single breath (about 1 pint of air).
heart murmur *Read blue writing on page 269.* A little noise like a "whoosh" will be heard after a heart sound ("lubb dupp"). This means that the valve is leaking (a valve malfunction).
Mucus and Phlegm (due to infection or inflammation) In an upright person, mucus and phlegm from the entire nasal cavity are propelled by gravity with the help from cilia into the pharynx (the throat)to be swallowed.
When should you see a doctor for a nosebleed? (1) If your nose bleeds more often than once a week (2) If the bleeding continues for more than a half hour (3) If the bleeding is excessive or interferes with breathing (4) If the nosebleed was the result of a hard hit to the face (5) If the blood seems to be coming from deep in the nose
Figure 10.8, pg. 257 Alveolus Gas Exchange within the lungs (1) Gas exchange happens across the thin wall of the alveolus through a small space. (2) Then, through the porous wall of a nearby capillary. (3) OXYGEN diffuses INTO the blood. {inhaled by the lungs} (4) CARBON DIOXIDE diffuses OUT of the blood. {exhaled by the lungs}
Asthma An overreaction to an irritating substance or an activity. Asthma can be triggered by stimuli such as strenuous exercise, cold air, smoke, medications such as aspirin or ibuprofen, or exposure to allergens (substances that the person is allergic to).
Allergies (1) watery, clear nasal discharge or colorless sputum (2) no fever
Infection (caused by bacteria, virus, or fungi) (1) greenish or yellowish phlegm (2) fever
vocal folds (or vocal cords) When you are not talking, the vocal folds look like window curtains drawn to the sides of the larynx.
TRUE OR FALSE: Respiratory Conditions (1) Hiccups are spasms of the diaphragm. (T) (2) Angina is inflammation of the bronchi. (F)-Angina is a type of chest pain. (3) Pleurisy is inflammation of the pleural layers. (T) (4) Pneumonia is an infection of the alveoli. (T)
Read blue print about Snoring, Apnea, & Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA): pgs. 252-253 (1) All 3 involve the relaxation of the back of the tongue and the soft palate, which narrows the pharynx (the throat) during sleep. (2) Snoring is partial obstruction of the pharynx. Apnea is complete obstruction. (3) Snoring can deteriorate into apnea as a person ages or gains weight. (4) The sleeper DOES NOT remember episodes of apnea the next day.
Tonsils (2 types) (1) palatine tonsils (2) pharyngeal tonsils (or adenoids) Tonsils are glandular tissue, part of the immune system that fights infection. (1) Tonsils SWELL (become larger) when they are fighting infection. (2) Pharyngeal tonsils may be enlarged and interfere with breathing through the nose. (3) Palatine tonsils also interfere with breathing when enlarged. (4) Tonsils may need to be removed if constantly enlarged or infected.
TRUE OR FALSE Inspiration: the drawing in of breath; inhalation (1) It is the contraction of the muscles of inspiration that are outside the lungs, such as the diaphragm. (T) (2) Deep inspirations will increase your alertness and improve your singing ability. (T) (3) The chest expands when the lungs actively enlarge because muscles contract in the bronchi and the bronchioles. (F) (4) The lungs passively expand with the chest because of the cohesion of the 2 pleural layers and the small amount of fluid between them, and air is drawn in. (T)
Review Figure 10.17 on page 268 on Human Heart Anatomy Study print-out for the test.
albumin protein that draws water from the tissues into the capillaries
fibrinogen protein that is activated by the coagulation
plasma clear, pale yellow fluid
platelet cell fragment that is activated to a star shape
red blood cell cell without a nucleus that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
Pulmonary embolism is life-threatening because ____________. an embolus or several emboli can clog narrow blood vessels in the lung, impairing circulation
When worn-out or damaged, red blood cells are recycled, ___________. iron is stored, heme is turned into bilirubin, and globin becomes new amino acids
Characteristics of Arteries (1) walls are made of thick smooth muscle (2) contents are under high pressure (3) most have oxygenated blood
Circulatory System apex The heart is shaped more like an inverted pyramid that comes to a blunt point called the apex.
mediastinum Found in the center of the chest between the lungs Contains a closely entwined collection of some of the body's most vital structures It is the "nest" for the heart and major blood vessels of the circulatory system along with other organs from the respiratory system and the digestive system.
blood pressure systolic pressure: highest point of the wave of blood pressure; its number is given first in a blood pressure reading diastolic pressure: low point of the wave of blood pressure; its number is given second in a blood pressure reading
heart failure the condition of inadequate heart pumping, the blood backs up in the veins and fluid from the blood leaks out into the tissues. Ankles and feet swell, the lungs fill with fluid, and breathing becomes difficult.
stent this is placed surgically in a coronary artery to strengthen it and open the place within the coronary artery.
heart block is the term used when a pacemaker signal isn't getting to the rest of the heart
myocardial infarction heart attack
fibrillating heart muscle cells quiver in many local contractions without beating together
Which blood vessels supply the blood to the heart muscle cells? coronary arteries
Automated External Defibrillator (AED) This machine can be used in an emergency to restart a normal heart rhythm.
Created by: vblackford



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