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Anatomy 2 Lab 2

Terms for lab 2 that might be on there or not who knows

Lymphatic capillary Small, blind-ended vessels that collect interstitial fluid and deliver it to lymph-collecting vessels
Lymph Interstitial fluid located in the lymphatic vessels
Lymph-collecting vessel Thin-walled structures that carry lymph from the small lymphatic capillaries to the larger lymph trunks
Lymph trunk Larger lymph vessels that transport lymph from many lymph-collecting vessels to one of two lymph ducts
Thoracic duct Large lymph vessel that drains lymph from both limbs; the left upper limb; the left side of the head, neck, and mediastinum; and the abdomen
Right lymphatic duct Large lymph vessel that drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head, neck, and mediastinum
Thymus Organ of the lymphatic system where T lymphocytes mature
Lymph node Encapsulated lymphatic organs found along the lymphatic vessels that filter lymph and remove pathogens, toxins, and cells
Spleen Lymphatic organ that filters the blood and houses phagocytes
Mucosal-associated lymphatic tissue Unencapsulated clusters of lymphatic tissue found throughout the body’s mucous membranes
Tonsil Unencapsulated lymphatic tissue found at the base of the tongue, in the nasopharynx, and in the oropharynx
Innate immunity The component of the immune response that reacts in the same manner to any invading organism or cellular injury
Inflammation A reaction to cellular injury characterized by redness, heat, edema, and pain; caused by inflammatory mediators that trigger vasodilation and increased capillary permeability
Adaptive immunity The component of the immune system that reacts to foreign cells and molecules with a unique set of cells and molecules for each antigen
Antigen Unique chemical markers on the surface of all cells and many molecules such as toxins and allergens
humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity Component of the adaptive response mediated by antibodies secreted by activated B lymphocytes (plasma cells)
Antibody Proteins secreted by plasma cells to bind to antigens and facilitate their destruction or neutralization
Cell-mediated immunity Component of the adaptive response mediated by T lymphocytes
Describe the 3 lines of defense First line is surface barriers that prevent pathogens into body. Second is nonspecific responses of innate immunity,including phagocytes&inflammatory response. Third includes specific responses of adaptive immunity, like antibodies&cell-mediated response
Explain how Innate immunity and adaptive immunity differ Adaptive immunity recognizes and binds individual, unique antigens, whereas innate immunity does not recognize antigens and so responds the same to any cellular injury.
Explain how Cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity differ Cell-mediated immunity is brought about by T cells; humoral immunity is brought about by B cells and antibodies.
When tissues are damaged, macrophages release inflammatory mediators that cause vasodilation , increased capillary permeability, and pain
Certain inflammatory mediators called _____ increase the hypothalamus’ “set point” for temperature and cause fever. pyrogens
Alimentary canal (gastrointestinal tract) A passage extending from the mouth to the anus through which food travels as it is digested; it includes the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and intestines
Accessory organ Organs that assist in mechanical or chemical digestion, including the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, and liver
Peritoneal cavity A cavity located between a double-layered serous membrane that secretes serous fluid, allowing organs to slide over each other without friction; much of the alimentary canal and many accessory organs reside here
Gastroesophageal sphincter Ring of smooth muscle located at the inferior end of the esophagus that prevents contents of the stomach from regurgitating up into the esophagus
Pyloric sphincter Ring of smooth muscle located between the pylorus of the stomach and the duodenum that controls passage of chyme into the small intestine
Duodenum First part of the small intestine
Jejunum Middle part of the small intestine; between the duodenum and the ileum
Ileum Last part of the small intestine; between the jejunum of the small intestine and the cecum of the large intestine
Colon Section of the large intestine that contains four divisions (ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon)
Salivary glands Accessory organs around the mouth that secrete saliva, which contains substances such as water, salivary amylase, antibodies, and lysozyme
Pancreas Exocrine and endocrine gland that sits posterior and inferior to the stomach; its exocrine functions are digestive whereas its endocrine functions are metabolic
Liver Organ located on the right side of the abdominal cavity consisting of four lobes; produces bile for digestion; detoxifies, processes, and eliminates toxins in blood before the blood enters the general circulation in the body
Gallbladder Sac-like organ located under the liver’s right lobe that stores the liver’s bile; when stimulated by certain hormones, it will contract and eject bile into the cystic duct to aid in digestion
Mucosa The inner epithelial tissue lining of the alimentary canal that is composed of simple columnar epithelium overlying the lamina propria and a layer of muscularis mucosa
Submucosa Layer of connective tissue deep to the mucosa that houses blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics, and elastic fibers
Muscularis externa Contains two layers of smooth muscle (inner circular and outer longitudinal) that contract alternately producing rhythmic contractions of peristalsis
Serosa Outer layer of organs of the alimentary canal that is partially composed of the visceral peritoneum found throughout much of the alimentary canal
Acinar cells Exocrine cells of the pancreas that produce and secrete pancreatic juice (i.e., digestive enzymes, bicarbonate ions, and water) into ducts
Pancreatic islet Endocrine cells of the pancreas that secrete hormones such as insulin into the bloodstream
Liver lobule Hexagonal plates of cells that have a vein in the center of each lobule that eventually drains into hepatic veins; at each lobule’s six corners, there are three vessels called portal triads
Digestive enzyme Enzymes produced by organs of the digestive system that catalyze reactions that break food down chemically into smaller molecules
Chemical digestion Process by which the chemical bonds between food molecules are broken in chemical reactions
Emulsification The first step in the process of lipid digestion, it breaks up the fat globules into smaller pieces with the help of bile salts
Bile Fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder that contains bile salts, which are amphipathic molecules that emulsify fats in the small intestine and aid in their digestion
Salivary amylase- source and function Salivary glands; Catalyzes reactions that break starch into oligosaccharides
Pepsin- source and function Chief cells of the stomach; Catalyzes reactions that break proteins into polypeptides
Trypsin- source and function Pancreas; Catalyzes reactions that break polypeptides into small polypeptides and peptides
Pancreatic lipase- source and function Pancreas; Catalyzes reactions that break triglycerides into free fatty acids and monoglycerides
Brush border enzymes- source and function Enterocytes of the small intestine mucosa; Catalyze reactions that break disaccharides into monosaccharides
What effect does pH have on protein digestion with pepsin? Why? Pepsin is only active in a solution with acidic pH. This helps to ensure pepsin remains inactive (in the form of pepsinogen) until digestion occurs, which prevents the enzyme from catalyzing reactions that would damage stomach cells.
What other effects does acid have in the stomach? The acidic pH of the stomach kills or decreases the growth of many microorganisms, which helps prevent infection and/or colonization of the stomach.
What effect does bile have on lipid digestion? Why? Bile enhances lipid digestion by breaking lipids into smaller droplets and giving lipase greater surface area on which to work.
Bile salts Emulsifies/emulsify fats
Micelles Clusters of bile salts and digested lipids in the small intestine
Chylomicrons Protein-coated lipid droplets that are absorbed
Pancreatic lipase Enzyme(s) that digest(s) lipids into free fatty acids and monoglycerides
Hydrochloric acid
Lacteal Structure(s) into which lipids are absorbed
Explain the importance of emulsification in lipid digestion. Emulsification physically breaks apart lipids into smaller droplets to give pancreatic lipase a greater surface area on which to work as it catalyzes lipid breakdown.
Created by: Devtemrys



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