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Anatomy 2 Exam 2

Study guide for blood vessels, lymphatic system and digestive crap

helps return blood to the heart Skeletal muscle pump, respiratory pump
Plasma proteins in capillaries escaping fluid&plasma proteins collected by lymphatic capillaries. Pressure in capillaries generated by presence of high quantities of albumin, protein that constitutes approx 80% of the total oncotic pressure exerted by blood plasma on interstitial fluid
smooth muscles in the walls of the arteries control local blood flow to tissues either by contracting or relaxing by their thick muscular coat in response to sympatheic nervous system,epinephrine secreted by medulla
Angiotensin II Vasoconstricting biochemical generated in response to reduced blood pressure or blood volume
The celiac artery gives rise to the left gastric, splenic and hepatic arteries, which supply upper portions of digestive tract, the spleen and liver respectively.
Left subclavian artery supply blood to left parts of shoulder, neck and head.
Right coronary artery provides blood to the right side of the heart, which pumps blood to the lungs
Brachiocephalic artery supplies blood to the tissues of the upper limb and head
Pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
external carotid arteries upward on the side of head, giving off branches to structures in the neck, face, jaw, scalp and base of skull
supplies blood to parts of the intestinal tract celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric arteries
The radial and ulnar veins Join together to become a pair of brachial veins. Both drain upper limbs
jugular head and neck drained by this
great saphenous vein Longest vein in body, originates on medial side of foot; recieves tributaries from a number of vessels that drain upper thigh, groin, and lower abdominal wall
hepatic portal vein Blood from spleen, digestive tract and pancreas drain here
Ulnar artery Toward pinkie; extends along the ulnar side of forearm
Radial artery Toward thumb; extends along radial side of forearm
Pathogen Disease-causing agents
the lymphatic system Draining interstitial fluid–Returning leaked plasma proteins to the blood–Protecting against invasion by nonspecific defenses and specific immune responses.
a lymphatic vessel Capillaries that begin as closed-ended tubes found in spaces between cells combine to form lymphatic vessels. fluid called lymph flow through towards large veins above the heart. Lymphatic vessels empty into subclavian veins.
thoracic duct originates in the cisterna chlyi in abdomen; empties into left subclavian vein. Drains lymph from intestinal, lumbar and intercostal trunks as well as left subclavian, left jugular and left bronchomediastinal trunks
right lymphatic duct drains lymphatic fluid from the right thoracic cavity, the right arm, and from the right side of the neck and the head
primary functions of lymph absorb dietary fat, returns most small proteins filtered by capillaries back to bloodstream. Transports foreign particles to lymph nodes.
hilum depression where blood vessels, nerves and other structures enter an organ
The lymph nodes of the axillary region axillary lymph node. Receive lymph from vessels that drain upper limbs, wall of thorax, mammary glands and upper abdomen wall
inguinal region lymph nodes receives lymph from lower limbs, external genitalia and lower abdominal wall
T lymphocytes white blood cell that interacts with antigen-bearing cells and particles and secrete cytokines, contributing to cellular immune response
the thymus gland that secretes hormones involved in development of immune response. T-cells mature here. Larger in infants.
tissues of the spleen White pulp composed of splenic nodules and packed with lymphocytes. - Red pulp which contains abundant red blood cells plus many lymphocytes and macrophages
A virus differs from other pathogens Not considered organisms due to simple structure. Cannot reproduce on their own. Viruses take over the cells they infect and use that cell's own processes to create more copies of the virus
Inflammation Tissue response that produces localized redness, swelling, heat and pain. Increases permeability of nearby capillaries.
Interferon proteins that lymphocytes and fibroblasts produce in response to viruses or tumor cells
The most active phagocytic cells Neutrophils and Monocytes
Interleukin-1 raises thermoregulatory set point in brain's hypothalamus to maintain higher body temp
Low-grade fever Indirectly counters microbial growth because higher temp causes liver and spleen to sequester iron, reducing level in blood which slow growth of pathogen
IgA, IgD, IgG, IgE IgA found in breast milk, saliva, sweat, tears, mucous. IgG most abundant. IgM what attacks ABO blood group if wrong blood given.
cells that give rise to memory cells certain cytotoxic T cells (CD8 T cells) give rise to memory T cells. Activated B cell's clone can differentiate into memory B cells.
an autoimmune disease Disease where the immune system attacks self
An antigen nonself molecules that can elicit an immune response.
an antibody protein that B cells produce in response to a nonself antigen that then reacts with the antigen
Plasma cells type of antibody-producing cell that forms when activated V-cells proliferate
Passive immunity the short-term immunity which results from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal. (Antibodies from breast milk)
The alimentary canal muscular tube about 8 m long that passes through body's thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
The digestive system Breakdown food into forms cell membranes can absorb. Ingestion, propulsion, absorption, defecation.
the layers in the walls of the alimentary canal Serosa layer, Muscularis layer,Submucosal layer, Mucosal layer
Peristalsis Rhythmic waves of muscular contraction in the walls of certain tubular organs
sympathetic impulses inhibit digestive actions
parasympathetic impulses increase activities of digestive system such as motility and enzyme secretion.
The mechanical breakup breaks food into smaller pieces without altering chemical composition.
mastication Chewing
Salivary amylase enzyme that hydrolyzes (digests) starch in the mouth
functions of saliva moistens food particles, helps bind them, and begins chemical digestion of carbs
parts of the stomach Cardia (near esophageal opening), fundus (temporary storage superior to cardia), body (main part between fundus and pylorus), pylorus (distal portion where it approaches small intestines)
HCl in the stomach Denatures proteins, keeps stomach sterile and converts pepsinogen into the enzyme pepsin, which then helps digestion by breaking the bonds linking amino acids, a process known as proteolysis.
parietal cells oxyntic cells, secrete HCl; reside deep in glands near openings of gastric pits.
Gastrin hormones secreted by stomach that stimulates gastric juice secretion, relaxes pyloric sphincter, constrict esophageal sphincter preventing entry
secretin hormone from small intestine that stimulates pancreas to release pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate ion
pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest carbs, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids. Keeps small intestine from being dissolved.
Trypsin enzyme in pancreatic juice that breaks down protein molecules
Functions of the liver important metabolic activities. Carb metabolism by maintaining blood glucose. Oxidizes fatty acids, synthesize lipoproteins, phospholipids and cholesterol. Convert excess portions of carb molecules into fat. Stores substances. Deamination
common hepatic duct formed by the junction of the right hepatic duct (which drains bile from the right half of the liver) and the left hepatic duct
the cystic duct connects the top of the gallbladder's neck to the common hepatic duct. It then joins the common bile duct, which meets pancreatic duct before it empties into the duodenum.
common bile duct small, tube-like structure formed where the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct join. Its physiological role is to carry bile from the gallbladder and empty it into the upper part of the small intestine (the duodenum).
colon part of large intestine
ileum part of small intestine between jejunum and cecum
jejunum part of small intestine between duodenum and ileum
epithelial cells that form the inner lining of the small intestine simple columnar epithelial cells
the correct sequence for the digestion and absorption of lipids fatty acid dissolve in epithelial cell membranes of villi&diffuse. Endoplasmic reticula of cells use to resynthesize fat similar to similar digested. Clusters, encased in protein. To lacteals of villi. contractions of smooth muscle empty cysterna chui.
LDL Low-density lipoprotein. Have high cholesterol count, delivers it to places that need it
HDL high-density lipoprotein. picks up cholesterol from peripheral tissues and returns it to liver.
triglycerides lipid composed of 3 fatty acids and a glycerol molecule; fat. Digested by bile
functions of the large intestine Secretes mucus, absorption of water and other vitamins/minerals. Bacteria reside here to help break down some molecules.
Feces material expelled from the digestive tract during defecation.
hemorrhoids swollen veins in the lower part of the anus and rectum
diarrhea frequent defecation and water stools.
Created by: Devtemrys



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