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Miranda Shelton

Anatomy - Final Stack

A signal conduction route to and from the central nervous system is a(n): Reflex Arc
What structure of the Schwann cell is essential to normal nerve growth and the regeneration of injured nerve fibers? neurilemma
region of a neuron with a name that means "little hill." Axon Hillock
The somatic nervous system carries information to the Skeletal Muscles
These regions of the neuron direct electrical currents toward the cell body. Dendrite
Bundles of myelinated fibers make up the: white matter of the nervous system.
The _____ nervous system is a complex network of nerve pathways embedded in the intestinal wall with a network of integrators and feedback loops that can act somewhat independently. Enteric - second brain
Nerves that originate from the brain are called _____ nerves. cranial
The glia cells that help form the blood-brain barrier are the astrocytes
The ________ of a presynaptic neuron associates with the dendrite of a postsynaptic neuron. Axon Terminal
Excitable cells that conduct the impulses are called Neurons
What term describes the bundles of nerve fibers within the central nervous system? Tracts
Interneurons reside in the: CNS only
Gray matter in the brain and spinal cord consists primarily of: Cell bodies
Most unipolar neurons are usually: sensory neurons.
A neuron that transmits a nerve impulse toward the central nervous system is called a(n): Sensory (afferent) neuron
Functions of the CNS? 1) Integrating sensory information 2) Evaluating the information 3) Initiating an outgoing response
reflex arc always consists of an afferent neuron and an efferent neuron.
Schwann cells have a function in the PNS that is similar to that of which cells in the CNS? Oligodendrocytes
compound that cannot cross the blood-brain barrier? dopamine
The nervous system can be divided by: 1) according to its structure. 2) according to direction of information flow. 3) by control of effectors.
The nervous system is organized to: 1) Detect changes in the external environment. 2) Detect changes in the internal environment. 3) Evaluate changes in the environment.
Connective tissues of nerve deep to superficial: 1) Endoneurium 2) Perineurium 3) Epineurium
The afferent pathways of the autonomic nervous system: carry feedback information to integrating centers in the brain.
Small distinct regions of gray matter in the CNS are called: Nuclei
Fascicles are held together by a connective tissue layer called the: perineurium.
Neurons in the CNS have less chance of regenerating for all of the following reasons except: microglia lay down scar tissue.
Six major divisions of the brain, named from below, upward, are as follows: medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, diencepha-lon, and cerebrum.
Parts of the brain that make up the brain stem: medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain
Arteries Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart and to the tissues
Veins Cary deoxygenated blood back to the heart from the tissues
Two types of circulation: Pulmonary & Systemic
Most numerous type of blood cells Erythrocytes - carry oxygen to tissue cells
Platelets Aid in blood clotting
Neutrophils ingest small pathogens
monocytes ingest bateria
Basophils Secrete heparin (an anticoagulant & histamine)
Eosinophils cause allergic reactions, kill large pathogens & parasitic worms
Lymphocytes secrete antibodies
The hormone produced by the heart increases the excretion of sodium in the urine.
Hormone that inhibits osteoclast activity in children: calcitonin
Which of the following areas has the highest concentration of cones? the fovea centralis
Pancreatic cell type that produces insulin. Beta cells
Melanin-containing layer of the eye's vascular tunic. choroid
Class of hormones secreted during chronic stress that depress immune function. glucocorticoids
Endolymph is made in the stria vascularis.
Membrane attached to the stapes. oval window
Which endocrine gland stores enough of its hormone extracellularly to last several months? The thyroid
The nerve carrying taste information from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue is the facial nerve
The hypophyseal portal veins are primarily located in the infundibulum
Which of the following endocrine glands develops primarily from the endoderm of the pharynx? Thyroid & parathyroid
Bony labyrinth structure containing the utricle and saccule. vestibule
Region of the adrenal cortex that secretes DHEA. zona reticularis
The four structures that compose the conduction system of the heart are the SA node, AV node, AV bundle, and Purkinje fibers.
The normal cardiac impulse that initiates mechanical contraction of the heart arises in the SA node
During fetal circulation, what opening in the septum, between the right and left atria, directs most of the blood so that it bypasses the fetal lungs? foramen ovale
The term blood type refers to the type of blood cell antigen
The bulk of the heart wall is the thick, contractile middle layer called the myocardium
A glycoprotein hormone that is secreted to increase oxygen concentration in the tissues is erythropoietin
The heart valves that are located where the trunk of the pulmonary artery joins the right ventricle and where the aorta joins the left ventricle are called semilunar valves
During pregnancy, what happens to the oxygenated blood returned from the placenta via the umbilical vein? It flows into the inferior vena cava.
The outermost layer of the larger blood vessels is the tunica adventitia.
Which of the following is a powerful poison that acts directly on any cell and quickly kills it? lymphotoxin
The movement of phagocytes from blood vessels to an inflammation site is called diapedesis
The primary organ of the lymphatic system is the thymus
Pyrogen molecules trigger the fever response by promoting the production of prostaglandins
Molecules formed by the reactions of the complement cascade assemble themselves on the enemy cell’s surface, which results in cytolysis
Activities that result in central movement or flow of lymph are called lymphokinetic activities
Which organ has several functions, including defense, hematopoiesis, red blood cell and platelet destruction, and blood reservoir? spleen
Adaptive immunity, part of the body’s third line of defense, is orchestrated by two different classes of a type of white blood cell called the lymphocyte
Lymphatics in the villi of the small intestines are called lacteals
The body’s defense mechanisms can be organized into one of two major categories of immune mechanisms; these are innate and adaptive immunity.
The structure in the neck known as the “Adam’s apple” is the: thyroid cartilage.
The eustachian tube connects the middle ear with the: nasopharynx.
The structures that deflect air as it passes through the nose are called: conchae.
The function of the vibrissae in the vestibule is to: provide an initial “filter” to screen particulate matter from air that is entering the system.
In the right lung, the superior and middle lobes are separated by the: horizontal fissure.
The fauces, one of the seven openings found in the pharynx, opens into the: oropharynx
Which of the following lists the correct sequence of air as it passes through the nose into the pharynx? Anterior nares vestibule inferior, middle, and superior meatus posterior nares
The function of surfactant is to: prevent each alveolus from collapsing as air moves in and out during respiration.
The more common name for the pharynx is the: throat
The lower border of the cavity of the larynx is formed by the: cricoid cartilage.
Created by: mshelton724



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