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chapter 11

99% of neurons are... multipolar neurons
dendrites carry impulse toward cell body
axon carry impulse away from cell body
functions of PNS connects the CNS to the rest of the body
function of the nervous system receive stimulus
function of the nervous system conduct impulses to and from CNS
function of the nervous system interpret, make decisions, plan, store, etc
function of the nervous system respond via muscles or glands
grey matter unmyelinated neurons
intraneurons process and transfer information to motor neurons
motor neurons take information away from the spinal cord (to the muscles and glands)
multiple sclerosis immune system destroys myelin sheath
myelin sheath covers the axon of the nerve
bipolar neurons have .. 2 processes
unipolar neurons have .. 1 process
parts of CNS brain and spinal cord
parts of PNS cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves
sensory neurons carry impulses from the sensory organs to the spinal cord and brain (CNS)
synapse where two neurons communicate
threshold lowest level of stimulus that you can detect (lowest smell, lowest pain, lowest touch, etc.)
white matter myelinated neurons
3 membranes that surround the CNS meninges
vagus nerve base of the brain, internal organs
the closer the nerve endings the.. more sensitive
CNS central nervous system
Central Nervous System brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System connects CNS to other parts of the body
DO doctor of osteopathic medicine
MD medical doctor
DC doctor of chiropractic
Acupuncture inserting needles at specific points on the body to cure disease and ease pain
Concussions Mild TBI
Meningitis inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord
Cerebral Palsy loss or deficiency of motor control with involuntary spasms -- present at birth
Epilepsy abnormal brain activity. results in seizures
Parkinson's loss of dopamine
shingles viral disease that affects the PNS and causes blisters on the skin
Ischemic Stroke caused by blood clot that blocks or plugs blood vessel in the brain
most common type of stroke ischemic stroke
Hemorrhagic Stroke blood from an artery begins bleeding into the brain
Spina Bifida birth defect, spinal cord extends out and is not protected by vertebrae
fight or flight neurotransmitter adrenaline
Synapse junction between two nerve cells, consiting of a minute gap which causes
Alcohol and Synapse causes slow messages and slow reaction time
Nerve Gas organic chemicals that disrupt mechanism of how nerves transmit impulses
Nerve Gas Damage body losses control over muscles and it eventually causes death
endorphins euphoria neurotransmitters
Endorphins relieve pain and give pleasure
What produces endorphins ultra excerise like long distance running, pain, laughter, being held and loved, placebo, meditation, and acupuncture
duplicate of cocaine endorphins
Meninges line the skull and vertebral canal and enclose the brain and spinal cord.
Dura Mater thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord
Arachnid Layer middle layer of meninges, web like
Pia Mater thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
Reflex Arc nerve pathway
Medulla Oblongata reflex control center: coughing, sneezing, and thinking
ANS autonomic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system part of the PNS, kicks in when stressed
PNS peripheral nervous system
peripheral nervous system controls glands and the msucles of the internal organs.
sympathetic stress, speeds up, fight or flight
parasympathetic returns body to its normal state
Ivan Pavlov classical conditioning
EEG electroencephalogram; shows brains electrical activity
Neuroglia surrounds and supports the neurons
Integrative Function coordinates information to create sensations, memory, thoughts, and make decisions
Motor Function decisions are acted upon.
Sensory Neurons toward brain and spinal cord
Afferent Neurons toward brain and spinal cord
Efferent Neurons away from brain and spinal cord
Interneurons neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally between the sensory outputs and motor inputs
motor neurons neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
all or none principle refers to the fact that the action potential in the axon occurs either full blown or not at all.
Threshold the lowest dose at which a particular response may occur
Refractory period period of inactivity after a neuron has fired
Thick Myelinated Axon 120 m/second
Thin unmyelinated axon 0.5m/second
Cerebrum largest part of the brain
divided into two hemispheres cerebrum
Corpus Callosum connects cerebral hemispheres
Left Side Controls responsible for controlling the right side of the body. It also performs tasks that have to do with logic, such as in science and mathematics
Right Side Controls hemisphere coordinates the left side of the body, and performs tasks that have do with creativity and the arts
long term memory holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years. changes the neurons
Short term memory holds a few items briefly, like the digits of a phone number while dialing
Thalamus gateway to brain: all sensory passes through before going to cortex
Hypothalamus maintains homeostasis by regulating visceral activies
limbic system emotinal responses, feelings, and behaviors, fight or flight
Midbrain cranial nerves attach
pons helps regulate rhythm of breathing
dermatome area of skin innervated by the sensory nerve fibers of a particular spinal nerve
C6 Dermatome thumb
C7 dermatome middle finger and middle of hand
C8 dermatome medial arm and forearm to long ring and little finger
cranial nerves 12 pairs
Olfactory Nerve nerve that carries smell impulses from the nerve to brain
Created by: bcampbell20



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