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Miranda Shelton

Physiology - Midterm Stack

Agonist Prime mover -the muscle the performs a specific movement
Antagonist Muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover
Synergist Muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation
Fixator Stabilizes the origin of a prime mover
Flexion Decreases the angle of a joint
Extension Straightening of a joint
Abduction Movement away from the midline of the body
Adduction Movement toward the midline of the body
Supination Movement that turns the palm up
Levels of organization in the body: Cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Anatomical position Body erect with arms at sides and palms forward, head and feet facing forward
Superior Toward the head, upper, above
Inferior Toward the feet, lower, below
Anterior Front, in front of
Posterior Back, in back of
Medial Towards the middle
Lateral Away from the midline or toward the side of a structure
Proximal Toward or nearest the trunk, or nearest the point of origin of a structure
Distal Away from or farthest from the trunk, or farthest from a structure’s point of origin
Diffusion The net movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
A chemical that reduces the amount of activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction is a(n): Catalyst
Glycolysis occurs in what part of the cell? Cytoplasm
In the DNA molecule, a sequence of three base pairs forms a(n): Codon
A membrane carrier structure attracts a solute to a binding site, changes shape, and releases the solute on the other side of the cell membrane. This describes the process of: Carrier-mediated transport
Phases of mitosis: Interphase (prep DNA), prophase (begin division), metaphase (in the middle), anaphase (apart), telophase (new envelope)
Protein Synthesis: Transcription (unzip, happens in nucleus), translation (make in cytoplasm)
Sodium potassium pump 3 sodium ions are taken out of the cell
DNA base pairings Adenine - Thymine Guanine - Cytosine
RNA base pairings Adenine - Uracil Guanine - Cytosine
Glycogen Carbohydrate known as animal starch
Examples of steroids: Cortisone, estrogen & testosterone
The small water channels in the cell membrane are called: Aquaporins
Synonymous with tumor: Neoplasm
The cell process in which microorganisms or other large particles are engulfed is called (eat) Phagocytosis
A molecule or other agent that alters enzyme function by changing its shape is called a(n): allosteric effector
Proteins that act as catalysts are called Enzymes
If oxygen is available, the pyruvate molecules formed by glycolysis are prepared to enter the next phase of aerobic cellular respiration, called the: Citric acid cycle
Meiosis Occurs in primitive sex cells, called “reduction division” because the number of chromosomes is reduced by half
Glycolysis occurs in what part of the cell? Cytoplasm
The lipid that is often referred to as a tissue hormone is: Prostaglandin
Which level of protein structure refers to the number, kind, and sequence of amino acids? Primary
Components of a feedback control loop: Sensor mechanism, integrator (control system), effector, feedback
Prostaglandins and steroids share which of the following characteristics? Both have a ring structure in their molecule.
Which lipid acts as a “tissue hormone”? Prostaglandin
The formation of sucrose involves the removal of a molecule of water. This is called: dehydration synthesis
The waxy secretion in the external ear canal is: ceruminous
In which skin layer does the process of keratinization begin? Stratum granulosum
Which cells of the skin act as a type of antigen-presenting cell in the skin? Dendritic cells
Fingernail growth is the result of the mitosis of the cells in the stratum: germinativum
Function of connective tissue: Support, defense & transport
Function of adipose tissue: Insulation, supports & protects kidneys & stores excess food
Which cells help destroy pathogens and damaged tissue in the brain? Microglia
Which tissue is most likely to form a keloid scar as it heals? connective tissue
Connective tissue forms from stem cell tissue called: mesenchyme
Which cells form the blood-brain barrier that protects the brain from harmful substances in the blood? Astrocytes
Areolar tissue usually contains which types of cells in the greatest number? Fibroblasts
Hematopoietic tissue can be found in the: Bones
The area referred to as true skin is the: Dermis
Which type of connective tissue helps newborns maintain body temperature by producing heat? Brown fat
Why is cartilage slow to heal? Because it is semi-solid and flexibleand it does not have a blood supply
Bones grow in diameter due to bone formation in: In the endosteum or periosteum
Zones in the epiphyseal plate: Calcification, maturation, proliferation, reserved
Axial Skeleton Skull, vertebral column, sternum & ribs
Appendicular skeleton Upper and lower extremities
Which of the following provide flexibility and smooth surfaces for movement? Cartilage
The fontenelles of an infant's skull consists of: fibrous membrane
The ulna articulates proximally with the: Humerus
The humerus articulates proximally with the: Scapula
The cells responsible for active erosion of bone minerals are called: Osteoclasts
A condition that is caused by an abnormally increased roundness in the thoracic curvature is: kyphosis
Zones of the epiphyseal plate: 1) Resting zone 2)Proliferating zone 3) Hypertrophy zone 4)Ossification zone
The primary ossification center of a long bone is located In the diaphysis
Calcification of the organic bone matrix occurs when: Complex calcium salts are deposited in the matrix.
In bone formation, the cells that produce the organic matrix are the: Osteoblasts
Extensibility The muscle’s ability to stretch or extend and to return to its resting length
Proteins that make up myofibrils: Myosin, actin, tropomyosin & troponin
Which subtype of fibrous joints is found only in the skull? Suture
Anaerobic respiration results in the formation of an incompletely catabolized molecule called: Lactate
Which type of movement occurs between the carpal and tarsal bones and between the articular facets of adjoining spinal vertebrae? Gliding
The joint present during the growth years between the epiphyses of a long bone and its diaphysis is the synchrondrosis
Bursa closed pillow-like structure found in some synovial joints
Which of the following accurately describes the direction of an impulse moving through a neuron that carries information to the central nervous system (CNS) from the peripheral nervous system (PNS)? An afferent neuron, impulse moving proximally.
Temporal summation When neurotransmitters from synaptic knobs stimulate a postsynaptic neuron in rapid succession, their effect can add up over a brief period to produce an action potential.
The active transport mechanism in the plasma membrane that transports sodium and potassium ions in opposite directions and at different rates is the Sodium-potassium pump - 3 sodium out 2 potassium in
The difference between sodium and potassium in the generation of action potential is that: sodium causes depolarization of the cell membrane, and potassium causes repolarization of the cell membrane.
The action potential seems to “leap” from node to node along a myelinated fiber. This type of impulse regeneration is called __________ conduction. Saltatory
Whether an impulse is continued through the neuron depends on the magnitude of the voltage in the: Axon Hillock
Membrane potential The difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of a membrane
The magnitude of the action potential peaks when the _____ channels close. Sodium
Resting and peak action potentials -70 and 30 mV
The tiny bulge at the end of a terminal branch of a presynaptic neuron’s axon is called a(n) Synaptic knob
Which membrane receptor acts to directly change ion permeability when stimulated? Gated-channel receptor
Which of the following antidepressants acts by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase (MAO)? Phenelzine
The neurotransmitter(s) that inhibit(s) the conduction of pain impulses is(are): enkephalins
For a neurotransmitter to produce an inhibitory postsynaptic potential, which of the following channels must open? Potassium and/or chloride channels
Dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine are classified as: catecholamines.
Within the nervous system, coding for the strength of a stimulus is accomplished through: the frequency of nerve impulses.
Fastest nerve impulse & slowest 130 and .5
The first event to occur when an adequate stimulus is applied to a neuron is: some of the sodium channels at the point of stimulation open.
Which neuron could transmit a nerve impulse the fastest? A large-diameter neuron with myelin
Serotonin is an example of a(n): amine neurotransmitter.
Severe depression can be caused by a deficit in certain brain synapses of: neuropeptides.
Created by: mshelton724



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