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Lymphatic system consist of two semi-independent parts: (1) a meandering network of lymphatic vessels and (2) various lymphoid tissues and organs scattered throughout the body
edema an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the body parts or tissues; causes swelling
lymphatic vessels forms an elaborate drainage system that picks up excess tissue fluid
lymph the watery fluid in the lymph vessels collected from the tissue spaces
lymph capillaries spider web between the tissue cells and blood capillaries in the loose connective tissues of the body and absorb the leaked fluid (primarily water and a small amount of dissolved proteins).
right lymphatic duct drains the lymph from the right arm and the right side of the head and thorax
thoracic duct receives lymph from the rest of the body
lymph nodes help protect the body by removing foreign material; a mass of lymphatic tissue
macrophages engulf and destroy bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances in the lymph before it is returned to the blood
lymphocytes agranular white blood cells formed in the bone marrow that mature in the lymphoid tissue; respond to foreign substances in the lymphatic stream
lymphoid organs organs in the lymphatic system including lymph nodes, spleen and tonsils
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) Peyer's patches, the appendix, and the tonsils are part of small lymphoid tissues; act as a sentinel to protect the upper respiratory and digestive tracks from the never-ending attacks of foreign matter entering those cavities
innate defense system responds immediately to protect the body from all foreign substances, whatever they are
adaptive defense system mounts the attack against particular foreign substances
immunity the ability of the body to resist many agents that can cause disease; resistance to disease
lysozyme an enzyme that kills bacteria
natural killer cells can lyse and kill cancer cells, and some other nonspecific targets well before the adaptive arm of the immune system is enlisted to fight
inflammatory response a nonspecific response that is triggered whenever body tissues are injured
histamine a substance that causes vasodilation and increase vascular permeability
chemotaxis movement of a cell along a chemical concentration gradient either toward or away from the chemical stimulus
pus a mixture of dead or dying neutrophils, break-down tissue cells, and living and dead pathogens
phagocytes cell capable of engulfing and digesting particles or cells harmful to the bod
antimicrobial proteins enhance the innate defenses either by attacking microorganisms directly or by hindering their ability to reproduce
complement a group of at least 20 plasma proteins that circulate in the blood in an inactive state
interferons they help defend cells that have not yet been infected by secreting small proteins
fever abnormally high body temperature, and is a systemic response to invading microorganisms
pyrogens chemicals secreted by white blood cells and macrophages exposed to foreign cells or substances in the body
immune response antigen-specific defenses mounted by activated lymphocytes (T cells and B cells)
humoral immunity immunity provided by antibodies released by sensitized B cells and their plasma cell progeny. also called antibody-mediated immunity
cellular immunity immunity conferred by lymphocytes called T cells; also called cell-mediated immunity
antigen any substance-- including toxins, foreign proteins, or bacteria-- that, when introduced to the body, is recognized as foreign and activates the immune system
B lymphocytes lymphocytes that oversee humoral immunity
T lymphocytes non-antibody producing lymphocytes that constitute the cell mediated arm of the adaptive defensive system
active immunity B cells encounter antigens and produce antibodies
passive immunity antibodies are obtained from someone else
antibodies constitute the gamma globulin part of blood proteins; soluable proteins secreted by B cells
hypersensitivities abnormally vigorous immune responses in which the immune system causes tissue damage as it fights off a percieved threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body
anaphylactic shock when the allergen directly enters the blood and circulates rapidly through the body in susceptible individuals
immunodeficiencies the production or function of immune cells or complement is abnormal
Created by: kpeeples



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