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Ch. 4 terms

muscles

TermDefinition
functions of muscular system make movement possible, hold the body erect, move food, blood, and other body fluids, produce heat
muscle fibers long slender cells that make up muscles
fascia band of connective tissue in muscles, is flexible; cover, support, and separate muscles
tendons narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue, attaches muscle to bone
skeletal muscles attach to the bones and make body movements possible, voluntary and striated
smooth muscle located in the walls of internal organs, move and control the flow of fluids, involuntary, unstriated, and visceral
myocardial muscle form the muscular walls of the heart
muscle innervation stimulation of a muscle by an electrical impulse, muscle contracts
antagonistic muscle pairs two muscles working in opposition to each other, e.g. biceps bends arm, triceps straightens arm
contraction tightening of a muscle, it becomes shorter and thicker and the belly of the muscle enlarges
relaxation muscle returns to original form, becomes longer and thinner and belly is not enlarged
abduction movement of a limb away from the midline of the body
adduction movement of a limb toward the midline of the body
flexion decreasing the angle between two bones by bending a joint
extension increasing the angle between two bones, or the straightening of a limb
elevation raising or lifting of a body part
depression lowering a body part
rotation circular motion around an axis such as the shoulder joint
circumduction circular movement at the far end of a limb, such as your wrist when you swing your arm around
supination act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of foot is turned forward or upward
pronation act of rotating arm or leg so palm or sole is turned downward
dorsiflexion movement that bends the foot upward at the ankle, flexing your foot
plantar flexion movement that bends the foot downward at the ankle, pointing your toes
origin where a muscle begins, less moveable attachment
insertion where the muscle ends, the more movable attachment
sternocleidomastoid bends the neck and rotates the head, sterno/cliedo/mastoid
flexor carpi bends the wrist
extensor carpi extends/straightens the wrist
levator anguli oris raises the corners of the mouth, smile
depressor anguli oris lowers the corners of the mouth, frown
pectoral relating to the chest
pectoralis major thick, fan-shaped muscle situated on the anterior chest wall
lateralis toward the side
vastus lateralis large muscle toward the outside of the leg, outside of thigh
medialis toward the midline
vastus medialis a muscle toward the midline of the leg, inside of thigh
oblique slanted or at an angle
rectus in straight alignment with vertical axis of body, up and down
sphincter ring like muscle that constricts a passageway
transverse across, left and right
biceps brachii has two origins, bi/ceps
triceps brachii has three origins, tri/ceps
gluteus maximus largest muscle in the butt
deltiod muscle shaped like a triangle, the greek letter delta, on the shoulder
hamstrings back of the upper leg, named for how a bucher would hang a pig
gastrocnemius calf muscle, shaped like a belly
dystonia condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes involuntary movements, dys/ton/ia
hypotonia condition of diminished muscle tone, hypo/ton/ia
myolysis degeneration of muscle tone, myo/lysis
myorrhexis rupture or tearing of a muscle, myo/rrhexis
sarcopenia loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that comes with aging, sarco/penia
bradykinesia extreme slowness in movement, brady/kines/ia
dyskinesia distortion or impairment of voluntary movement resulting in jerky movements, dys/kines/ia
hyperkinesia abnormally increased muscle function or activity, hyper/kines/ia
spasmodic torticollis stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side, torti/collis
myasthenia gravis chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles, my/asthenia
ataxia lack of muscle coordination during voluntary movement, a/tax/ia
carpal tunnel syndrome tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen
myoparesis weakness or slight muscular paralysis, myo/paresis
hemiparesis slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body, hemi/paresis
paraplegia paralysis of both legs and lower part of body, para/plegia
quadriplegia paralysis of all for extremities, quadra/plegia
cardioplegia intentional and temporary cessation of cardiac activity, primarily for cardiac surgery
RICE common first aid treatment of muscular injuries, Rest Ice Compression Elevation (not recommended anymore)
erector spinae holds spine erect
abductor digiti minimi
spinalis muscles in the spine
inferior rectus on the lower stomach, lower abs
esophageal sphincter in throat
Created by: malloryharlan