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Cardio Lab

Heart crap for lab maybe

QuestionAnswer
Fibrous pericardium Outermost layer of the sac surrounding the heart that anchors the heart to the surrounding structures
Serous parietal pericardium The outermost layer of the serous membrane around the heart that is functionally fused to the fibrous pericardium
Serous visceral pericardium The inner layer of the serous membrane around the heart that is part of the heart wall; also called the epicardium
Pericardial cavity A small potential space located between the two layers of the serous pericardium that contains serous fluid
Myocardium The layer of the heart wall composed of cardiac muscle tissue and a fibrous skeleton
Endocardium Endothelium that lines the chambers and valves of the heart
Atria (right and left) Small superior chambers of the heart that receive blood from veins
Ventricles (right and left) Large inferior chambers of the heart that eject blood into the arteries
Tricuspid valve Three-cusped structure between the right atrium and right ventricle that prevents the flow of blood back into the right atrium
Mitral (bicuspid) valve Two-cusped structure between the left atrium and left ventricle that prevents the flow of blood back into the left atrium
All Bicuspid valve names LAMB: Left Atrioventricular valve, Mitral Valve, (Bicuspid)
Pulmonary valve Three-cusped structure between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk that prevents the flow of blood back into the right ventricle
Aortic valve Three-cusped structure between the left ventricle atrium and aorta that prevents the flow of blood back into the left ventricle
Chordae tendineae Fibrous cords attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves that anchor the cusps to the papillary muscles
Papillary muscles Muscular projections from the ventricular walls that pull the chordae tendineae taut to prevent prolapse of the cusps of the atrioventricular valves
Superior vena cava Large vein that carries blood from the superior half of the body to the right atrium
Inferior vena cava Large vein that carries blood from the inferior half of the body to the right atrium
Pulmonary trunk Artery that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
Pulmonary veins Veins that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
Aorta Largest artery in the body that carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle into systemic circulation
Where do veins carry blood Veis carry blood toward the heart.
Is the blood carried by veins generally oxygenated or deoxygenated? Does this rule have any exceptions? If yes, where? Deoyxgnenated. Yes, exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins.
Where do arteries carry blood Arteries carry blood away from the heart
Is the blood carried by arteries generally oxygenated or deoxygenated? Does this rule have any exceptions? If yes, where? oyxgnenated. Yes, exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical arteries.
Right ventricle ejects blood.. into the pulmonary trunk when contracted
Left ventricle ejects blood into the aorta when contracted
How does the Pulmonary valve differ structurally from the tricuspid valve? It has three half-moon shaped cusps not attached to chordae tendineae.
Why is the left ventricle muscle thicker? The left ventricle pumps against much higher pressure and therefore requires a higher muscle mass.
Trace blood, starting from Inferior/Superior venae cavae ➜right atrium➜tricuspid valve➜right ventricle ➜pulmonary valve➜pulmonary trunk➜pulmonary arteries ➜ pulmonary arterioles ➜ pulmonary capillaries ➜ pulmonary venules ➜ pulmonary veins ➜ left atrium ➜ mitral valve ➜ left ventricle ➜ aortic valve ➜End: Aorta
The tricuspid and mitral valves are known as the atrioventricular (AV) valves.
The two main branches of the left coronary artery are the ____ and the ____ anterior interventricular artery; circumflex artery
The main vein that drains the coronary circulation is the coronary sinus
Cardiac muscle cells are also known as_ ___. Adjacent cells are joined together by _____ , which allow the heart to _____ cardiac myocytes; intercalated discs; contract as a unit
Auscultation The process of listening to heart sounds
S1 The first heart sound, caused by the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves at the beginning of ventricular systole
S2 The second heart sound, caused by the closure of the aortic and pulmonary valves at the beginning of ventricular diastole
Tachycardia A heart rate of greater than 100 bpm
Bradycardia A heart rate of fewer than 60 bpm
Pulse point Location point on the body where an artery can be palpated with the fingertips to determine the rate, rhythm, and regularity of the heartbeat
Systolic pressure The pressure in the arteries during ventricular systole
Diastolic pressure The pressure in the arteries during ventricular diastole
Sounds of Korotkoff The sounds (heard by auscultation with a stethoscope) of turbulent blood flow resuming during a blood pressure reading
Sinoatrial node A collection of pacemaker cells in the superior portion of the right atrium that acts as the normal pacemaker of the heart
Atrioventricular node A collection of pacemaker cells located posterior and medial to the tricuspid valve that acts as the backup pacemaker of the heart
Purkinje fiber system The final series of pacemaker cells that connects the atria to the ventricles and fans out to the ventricular myocytes
Electrocardiogram A recording of the changes that occur in the electrical activity of cardiac muscles cells over a period of time
P wave A wave on the ECG that shows the depolarization of the right and left atria
QRS complex A series of waves on the ECG that represent the depolarization of the right and left ventricles
T wave A wave on the ECG that represents the repolarization of the right and left ventricles
Dysrhythmia A disturbance in the normal rhythm of the heart
ECG heart wave pattern P-wave, P-R interval, QRS Complex, S-T segment, T-wave
P-R interval the depolarization spreads through the atria to the ventricles via the AV node; period includes the AV node delay
S-T segment: the ventricular plateau phase
Portion of the ECG just prior to the P wave SA node depolarization
Small box on wave graph .04 seconds
Large box on wave graph .20 seconds
Five large boxes 1 second
The heart sounds S1 and S2 are caused by closing of the atrioventricular and semilunar valve
What takes place at capillary beds? Gas, nutrient, and waste exchange
The amount of blood that flows to a tissue through capillary beds is called
Blood pressure is determined by three factors: (1) cardiac output and stroke volume , (2) peripheral resistance, or any impedance to blood flow, which is determined largely by the degree of 'vasoconstricton or vasodilation' in the systemic blood vessels; and (3) the blood volume
The pressure in the arteries when the heart is contracting is the systolic pressure
Created by: Devtemrys
 

 



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