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Anatomy 2 Exam 1

Study guide for endocrine, blood and heart crap

hormone chemical released into the bloodstream that typically act on targeted cells
Target cell a particular cell is a target cell for a hormone if it contains functional receptors for that hormone, and cells which do not have such a receptor cannot be influenced directly by that hormone.
exocrine secrete products into ducts which empty into body cavities or body surface–[sweat, oil, mucous, & digestive glands]
circulating Go everywhere in body; circulate, not urinated out or lost
autocrine cell that releases the hormone is also the target cell
paracrine Adjacent cells alerted
endocrine secrete products (hormones) into bloodstream– [pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal]
specificity of hormone action depend upon interaction with specific receptors on target cells
Steroid hormones attach to transport proteins synthesized by liver.
second messenger usually cAMP, released inside the cell where hormone stimulated response takes place. First messenger is hormone itself.
the posterior pituitary adh and oxytocin. Does not produce hormones. nds of axons of 10,000 neurons found in hypothalamus.
hypothalamus major integrating link between the nervous and endocrine systems. Controls pituitary gland with 9 different releasing & inhibiting hormones. OT and ADH made here and stored in Ant Pit.
upregulated deficiency of hormone leads to an increase in the number of receptors–target tissue becomes more sensitive to the hormone
Down-regulation excess hormone leads to a decrease in number of receptors; receptors undergo endocytosis and are degraded–decreases sensitivity of target cell to hormone
Tropic hormones hormones that have other endocrine glands as their target. Most tropic hormones are produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary.
Growth hormone most plentiful anterior pituitary hormone. Acts indirectly on tissues by promoting synthesis and secretion of IGFs.
antidiuretic hormone stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriolar constriction.–The effect of ADH is to decrease urine volume and conserve body water.
inhibited secretion of ADH Excessive urination, which is called polyuria, followed by extreme thirst, which is called polydipsia. Body unable to absorb much water
Diabetes insipidus Secretion of ADH is deficient, or the lack of the normal response by the kidney to ADH.
PTH homeostasis of calcium and phosphate. Increase blood Ca lvl&decrease blood phosphate lvl, increast osteoclasts.
FSH initiates the formation of follicles within the ovary–stimulates follicle cells to secrete estrogen–stimulates sperm production in testes
IGF-1 stimulate general body growth and regulate various aspects of metabolism. Various stimuli promote and inhibit hGH production
triiodothyronine T3. thyroid hormone that plays vital roles in the body's metabolic rate, heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development and function, and the maintenance of bones
Thyroxine T2. It plays vital roles in digestion, heart and muscle function, brain development and maintenance of bones
Hyperparathyroidism Condition in which one or more of the parathyroid glands become overactive and secrete too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). This causes the levels of calcium in the blood to rise, a condition known as hypercalcemia
secretion of parathyroid hormone Triggered by low blood calcium. PTH secretion causes the release of calcium from the bones by stimulating osteoclasts, which secrete enzymes that degrade bone and release calcium into the interstitial fluid
calcitonin responsible for building of bone & stops reabsorption of bone (lowers blood levels of Calcium)
Aldosterone main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. ncrease reabsorption of Na+ with Cl-, with bicarbonate and water following it–promotes excretion of K+ and H+
adrenal medulla Produce epinephrine & norepinephrine•Hormones are sympathomimetic(effects mimic those of sympathetic NS–cause fight-flight behavior)•Acetylcholine increase hormone secretion by adrenal medulla. Has Chromaffin cells
glucagon Alpha cells produce. stimulates glycogen breakdown
melatonin Pineal gland produces. responsible for setting of biological clock
erythropoietin produced by the kidneys increase RBC precursors
Hematocrit proportion, by volume, of the blood that consists of red blood cells.
Formed elements Red blood cells (erythrocytes)•White blood cells (leukocytes)•Platelets (special cell fragments)
white blood cells Leukocytes. nucleated cells and do not contain hemoglobin. 5000 to 10,000 cells per drop of blood. Most stored waiting in areas for infection fighting, waiting.
red blood cells Contain oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin that gives blood red color–1/3 of cell’s weight is hemoglobin•Biconcave disk 8 microns in diameter–increased surface area/volume ratio –flexible shape for narrow passages–no nucleus or organelles, no cell divide
platelets Help stop blood loss from damaged vessels by forming platelet plug. –Their granules contain chemicals that promote clotting.•Megakaryoblasts transform into megakaryocytes which fragment.•Each fragment, enclosed by piece of cell membrane, is a thrombocyte
monocyte Agranular leukocyte. Nucleus is kidney/horseshoe shaped•Largest WBC in circulating blood–does't remain in blood long before emigrating–differentiate into fixed&wandering macrophages. Roomba
basophil Granular leukocyte•Irregular, s-shaped nuclei. develop into mast cells that liberate heparin, histamine, and serotonin in allergic reactions that intensify the inflammatory response.
neutrophil Granular. Nuclei =2 to 5 lobes connected by thin strands–older cells have more lobes.Lysozymes which destroy/digest bacteria–Defensin proteins that act like antibiotics & poke holes in bacterial cell walls destroying them–Strong oxidants. Fastest response
eosinophil Granular. combat the effects of histamine in allergic reactions, phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes, and combat parasitic worms.
white blood cell count 5-10,000
phagocytes type of cell within the body capable of engulfing and absorbing bacteria and other small cells and particles.
Diapedesis passage of blood cells through the intact walls of the capillaries, typically accompanying inflammation (from injury).
Vitamin K Normal clotting requires vitamin K(fat soluble vitamin absorbed if lipids are present) absorption slowed if bile release is insufficient•Required for synthesis of 4 clotting factors by hepatocytes•Produced by bacteria in large intestine
Calcium In addition to building bones and keeping them healthy, calcium enables our blood to clot, our muscles to contract, and our heart to beat
Fibrinogen for clotting. During tissue and vascular injury, it is converted by thrombin to fibrin and then to a fibrin-based blood clot.
serum amber-colored, protein-rich liquid that separates out when blood coagulates.
plasma Over 90% water&7% plasma, proteins created in liver&confined to bloodstream [albumin,globulins, fibrinogen]. Holds blood cells in whole blood in suspension. liquid part of blood that carries cells&proteins through body. 55% of body's total blood volume.
Thrombocytopenia condition in which you have a low blood platelet count.
The red blood cells of type XX Type A- Antigen A on cell, anti-b antibodies. Type B- Antigen B on cell, anti-A antibodies. Type AB- both antigens. Type O- both antibodies
hemoglobin a red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood of vertebrates. Its molecule comprises four subunits, each containing an iron atom bound to a heme group.
platelet plug an aggregation of platelets formed during the earlier stage of hemostasis in response to blood vessel wall injury. Stick to exposed collagen.
Plasma contains Over 90% water and•7% plasma proteins. Water, salt, and enzymes, human plasma also contains important components, such as immunoglobulins (antibodies), clotting factors, and the proteins albumin and fibrinogen
universal donors Type O– blood, which does not have A, B, or Rh antigens on the surface of its cells, so it can be accepted by a person of almost any blood type without triggering an immune response
Circulation Moving throughout the body in the fluid system
pulmonary circuit The portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
systemic circuit carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle, through the arteries, to the capillaries in the tissues of the body. From the tissue capillaries, the deoxygenated blood returns through a system of veins to the right atrium of the heart.
the ventricular walls contract ventricle fills with blood,pressure inside rises. This pressure causes semi-lunar valve to open. At same time, walls of the ventricle contract (systole) and force blood out through aorta. The bicuspid valve stays shut to stop blood flowing back to atria.
endocardium the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart
epicardium serous membrane that forms the innermost layer of the pericardium and the outer surface of the heart
pericardium membrane enclosing the heart, consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner double layer of serous membrane.
myocardium. heart muscles
Right atrium Receives blood from 3:superior&infer vena cava, coronary sinus. Tricuspid valve. Interatrial septum divides the atria
tricuspid valve Blood flows through into right ventricle. Prevent regurgitation of blood from the right ventricle back into the right atrium–has three cusps composed of dense CT covered by endocardium
right ventricle Most of anterior surface of heart•Papillary muscles are cone shaped trabeculae carneae (raised bundles of cardiac muscle). Chordae tendineae: cords between valve cusps and papillary muscles
pulmonary valve Pulmonary semilunar valve: blood flows into pulmonary trunk Closes off the lower RV. Opens to allow blood to be pumped from the heart to the lungs (through the pulmonary artery) where it will receive oxygen.
superior vena cava large vein carrying deoxygenated blood into the heart from head, arms and upper body. Goes to RA
inferior vena cava large vein that carries the deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the RA
coronary sinus collection of veins joined together to form large vessel that collects blood from myocardium. Where the cardiac veins drain. It delivers less-oxygenated blood to the RA, as do the superior and inferior venae cavae.
Atrial natriuretic peptide Polypeptide hormone from the atria that increases sodium excretion
an ECG pattern P wave–atrial depolarization •P to Q interval–conduction time from atrial to ventricular excitation •QRS complex –ventricular depolarization•T wave–ventricular repolarization
cardiac impulses wave of cardiac excitation passing from the SA node to the AV node and along the bundle of His and initiating the cardiac cycle
SA node Coordinates contraction of heart muscle. Fires spontaneously 90-100 times per minute. heart's natural pacemake
AV node Specialized mass of cardiac muscle fibers in interatrial septum of heart that conducts cardiac impulses from SA to AV bundle. Fires at 40-50 times per minute if AV not working
AV bundle Group of specialized muscle fibers that conducts impulses from the AV node to Purkinje fibers in the ventricular muscle of heart, AV bundle, bundle of His.
Purkinje fibers fire only 20-40 times per minute
the vagus nerve Cranial nerve X. Helps regulate heartrate. Decreases rate of spontaneous depolarization in SA node and AV bundle. Decreases heartrate.
normal pacemaker of the heart SA node
fibrillation Uncoordinated contraction of cardiac muscle fibers. irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) that can lead to blood clots, stroke, heart failure and other heart-related complications.
secondary pacemaker for the heart AV node
cells in the SA node reach threshold When the membrane potential reaches a threshold value (around -20 to -50 mV), it begins to rapidly depolarise (become more positive). This is mainly due to the flow of Ca2+ through the L-type calcium channels, which are now fully open.
Fibrinogen to fibrin When tissue damage results in bleeding, fibrinogen is converted at the wound into fibrin by the action of thrombin, a clotting enzyme
Created by: Devtemrys



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